Practical Failure Analysis

, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 56–61 | Cite as

Comparison of transmission and scanning electron fractography

  • J. L. Hubbard
Peer Reviewed Articles


The transmission electron microscope, with suitable replication techniques, was used extensively during the 1950s and 1960s to study the surfaces of metal fractures, both to understand the mechanism of fracture and for practical failure analysis. When the scanning electron microscope was introduced in the 1960s, these studies were greatly simplified by the lack of necessity for replication. The appearance of the fracture surfaces, however, was different in some cases from the appearance the fractographer was accustomed to seeing from his or her negative replica. This work was done to help translate from one technique to another.


electron fractography failure analysis fractography fracture 


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Copyright information

© ASM International - The Materials Information Society 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Hubbard
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Analytical ServicesSuwanee

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