Skip to main content

Is the Universe flat?

Abstract

The evidence for unseen mass (which is briefly reviewed) suggests that the cosmological density parameter Ω is at least 0.1–0.2. An Einstein-de-Sitter ‘flat’ universe with Ω = 1 — which is appealing for theoretical reasons — can only be reconciled with the data if the galaxies are more ‘clumped’ than the overall mass distribution, and are poor tracers of the unseen mass even on scales of several Mpc. Possible forms for the unseen mass are discussed; and feedback processes are outlined whereby galaxy formation can be suppressed in underdense regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abbott, L., Sikivie, P. 1983,Phys. Lett.,120B, 133.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Bahcall, J. N. 1984,Astrophys. J.,276, 169.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Bahcall, J. N., Soneira, R. M. 1980,Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser.,44, 73.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Bean, A. J., Efstathiou, G., Ellis, R. S., Peterson, B. A., Shanks, T. 1983,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc.,205, 605.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Blumenthal, G., Faber, S. M., Primack, J. R., Rees, M. J. 1984,Nature,311, 517.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Bond, J. R., Efstathiou, G. 1984,Astrophys. J. Lett., in press.

  • Bond, J. R., Szalay, A. S., White, S. D. M. 1983,Nature,301, 584.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Boughn, S. P., Saulson, P. R., Seldner, M. 1981,Astrophys. J.,250, L15.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Canizares, C. R. 1982,Astrophys. J.,263, 508.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Carr, B. J., Bond, J. R., Arnett, W. D. 1984,Astrophys. J.,277, 445.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Couchman, H. P. 1984,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., (submitted).

  • Cowsik, R., McClelland, J. 1973,Astrophys. J.,180, 7.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • David, Y., Reeves, H. 1980, inPhysical Cosmology, Eds R. Balian, J. Audouze & D. N. Schramm, North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 443.

  • Davis, M., Peebles, P. J. E. 1983,A. Rev. Astr. Astrophys.,21, 109.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Dekel, A., Einasto, J., Rees, M. J. 1985, in preparation.

  • Dine, M., Fischler, W. 1983,Phys. Lett.,120B, 137.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Doroshkevich, A. G., Shandarin, S. F., Zel’dovich, Ya. B. 1983, inIAU Symp. 104:Early Evolution of the Universe and its Present Structure, Eds G. O. Abell & G. Chincarini, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 387.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doroshkevich, A. G., Zel’dovich, Y. B., Novikov, I. D. 1967,Sov. Astr.,11, 233.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Einasto, J., Kaasik, A., Kalamees, P., Vennik, J. 1975,Astr. Astrophys.,40, 161.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Einasto, J., Lynden-Bell, D. 1982,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc.,199, 67.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Faber, S. M. 1984, inProc ESO/CERN Conference on Cosmology and Particle Physics, CERN Publications.

  • Fabian, A. C., Kembhavi, A. 1982, inExtragalactic Radio Sources, Eds D. Heeschen & C. Wade, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 453.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fabian, A. C., Nulsen, P. E. J., Canizares, C. 1984,Nature,310, 733.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Fabricant, D., Lecar, J., Gorenstein, P. 1980,Astrophys. J.,241, 552.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Forman, W., Jones, C. 1982,A. Rev. Astr. Astrophys.,20, 547.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Frenk, C., White, S. D. M., Davis, M.1983, Astrophys. J.,271, 417.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Fukugita, M., Watamura, S., Yoshimura, M. 1982,Phys. Rev. Lett.,48, 1522.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Geller, M. I., Huchra, J. P. 1983,Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser.,52, 61.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Geller, M. I., Peebles, P. J. E. 1973,Astrophys. J.,184, 329.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Gunn, J. E., Lee, B. W., Lerche, I., Schramm, D. N., Steigman, G. 1978,Astrophys. J.,223, 1015.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Hartquist, T. W., Cameron, A. G. W. 1977,Astrophys. Space Sci.,48, 145.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Hegyi, D. J., Gerber, G. L. 1977,Astrophys. J.,218, L7.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, G. L., Salpeter, E. E. 1982,Astrophys. J.,263, 485.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Hogan, C. 1984,Astrophys. J., in press.

  • Hogan, C., Rees, M. J. 1984,Nature,311, 109.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Huchra, J. P., Geller, M. J. 1982,Astrophys. J.,257, 423.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Ipser, J., Sikivie, P. 1933,Phys. Rev. Lett.,50, 925.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Joeveer, M., Einasto, J. 1976,Tartu astr. Obs. Publ.,54, 77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kahn, F. D., Woltjer, L. 1959,Astrophys. J.,130, 705.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Kashlinsky, A., Rees, M. J. 1983,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc.,205, 955.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Lynden-Bell, D. 1982, inAstrophysical Cosmology, Eds H. A. Brück, G. V. Coyne & M. S. Longair, Vatican Publications, p. 85.

  • Marx, G., Szalay, A. 1972,inProc, Neutrino ’72, Vol. 1, Technoinform, Budapest p. 191.

  • Melnick, J., White, S. D. M., Hoessel, J. 1977,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc.,180, 207.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Oort, J. H. 1932,Bull, astr. Inst. Netherl.,6, 249.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Pagel, B. E. J. 1982,Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond.,A307, 19.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Peebles, P. J. E. 1980, inPhysical Cosmology, Eds R. Balian, J. Audouzc & D. N. Schramm, North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 213.

  • Peebles, P. J. E. 1984,Astrophys. J.,277, 470.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Preskill, J., Wise, M., Wilczek, F. 1983,Phys. Lett.,120B, 127.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Press, W. H., Gunn, J. E. 1973,Astrophys. J.,185, 397.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Rees, M. J. 1983, inFormation and Evolution of Galaxies and Large Structures in the Universe, Eds J. Audouze & J. T. T. Van, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 237.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rubin, V. C. 1983,Science,220, 1339.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Tarbet, P. W., Rowan-Robinson, M. 1982,Nature,298, 777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uson, J., Wilkinson, D. T. 1984,Astrophys. J.,277, L1.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Vilenkin, A. 1984,Phys. Lett., in press.

  • White, S. D. M., Huchra, J., Latham, D., Davis, M. 1983,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc.,203, 701.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Wilczek, F. 1982,Phys. Rev. Lett.,49, 1549.

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Witten, E. 1984,Phys. Rev.,D30, 272.

    ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, J., Turner, M. S., Steigman, G., Schramm, D. N., Olive, K. A. 1984,Astrophys. J.,281, 493.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Zwicky, F. 1933,Helv. Phys. Acta,6, 110.

    MATH  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rees, M.J. Is the Universe flat?. J Astrophys Astron 5, 331–348 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02714464

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02714464

Key words

  • universe
  • cosmology
  • galaxies, distribution
  • galaxies, formation
  • unseen mass