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Revista de Oncología

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 327–334 | Cite as

¿Cuáles son los factores de riesgo para desarrollar un cáncer de vejiga?

  • Antonio Varo Baena
  • Mohamed Farouk Allam
  • Carmen Díaz-Molina
  • Amparo Serrano del Castillo
  • María José Requena Tapia
  • Rafeel Fernández-Crehuet NavajasEmail author
Revisiones
  • 67 Downloads

Resumen

Objetivo

Esta revisión presenta y discute los principales factores de riesgo para desarrollar un cáncer de vejiga.

Desarrollo

Los factores de riesgo más citados son: 1) Sexo y edad: las tasas en hombres se sitúan entre 4 y 10 veces superiores a las de las mujeres. La enfermedad es más frecuente entre los 60 y 79 años. 2) Tabaco: es el factor de riesgo principal según numerosos estudios. 3) Exposición laboral: fue el primer cáncer que se asoció a la industrialización. 4) Agua de bebida e ingesta de líquido: se relaciona una mayor mortalidad con niveles altos de nitratos en el agua de bebida. 5) Café y té: la mayoría de los estudios no encuentran ninguna asociación. 6) Sacarina: se ha encontrado un aumento del riesgo en diabéticos que consumen sacarina. 7) Alcohol: no se ha encontrado ninguna relación. 8) Dieta: la ingesta abundante de fruta y verduras se relaciona con una protección significativa. 9) Medicaciones: se han asociado varios fármacos a un incremento del riesgo. 10) Antecedentes clínicos: se ha encontrado un riesgo elevado en pacientes que fueron sometidos a una resección transuretral por un carcinoma de próstata. 11) Infecciones: se ha asociado con la infestación porSchitosoma haematobium. 12) Antecedentes familiares: no existen evidencias claras de que exista un factor hereditario. 13) Alteraciones moleculares y oncoproteínas: varios factores biológicos se han asociado con el pronóstico como el gen supresor p53.

Conclusiones

Son varios los factores de riesgo descritos en el cáncer de vejiga; sin embargo, no se ha encontrado, hasta ahora, ningún factor determinante para su desencadenamiento. Los futuros estudios deben plantear la hipótesis de etiología multifactorial y tener en cuenta la interacción entre los factores ambientales y genéticos.

Palabras clave

antecedentes familiares cáncer de vejiga dieta edad exposición laboral factores de riesgo infecciones tabaco sexo 

What are the risk factors for the development of urinary bladder cancer?

Abstract

|Objective

In this review we present and discuss the main risk factors for the development of urinary bladder cancer.

|Methods

The most frequently reported risk factors are: 1) Sex and age: the disease frequency is 4 to 10 times higher in men than in women. It is frequently seen between 60 and 79 years of age. 2) Tobacco: it is the main risk factor according to many studies. 3) Work exposure: it was the first cancer associated with industrialization. 4) Drinking water and liquid intake: high mortality was associated with high levels of nitrites in drinking water. 5) Coffee and tea: most studies did not find any association. 6) Artificial sweeteners: a high risk was found in diabetics who consume artificial sweeteners. 7) Alcohol: no relationship was found. 8) Diet: the high consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with significant protection. 9) Medication: several drugs were associated with increased risk. 10) Past medical history: a high risk was found in patients who were subjected to transurethral resection (TUR) for prostatic cancer. 11) Infections: it was associated with infestation bySchitosoma Haematobium. 12) Medical family history: there is no clear evidence of any hereditary factor. 13) Molecular alterations and oncoproteins: several biological factors were associated with the prognosis, like suppressor gene p53.Conclusions. There are several risk factors for urinary bladder cancer, although no single decisive triggering factor has been found to date. Further research should consider the hypothesis of a multifactor etiology and take into account the interaction between environmental and genetic factors.

Key words

family history urinary bladder cancer diet age work exposure risk factors infections tobacco sexo 

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Copyright information

© FESEO 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Varo Baena
    • 1
  • Mohamed Farouk Allam
    • 2
  • Carmen Díaz-Molina
    • 2
  • Amparo Serrano del Castillo
    • 2
  • María José Requena Tapia
    • 3
  • Rafeel Fernández-Crehuet Navajas
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Sección de Epidemiología. Delegación Provincial de SaludServicio Andaluz de SaludCórdobaEspaña
  2. 2.Cátedra de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaEspaña
  3. 3.Servicio de UrologíaHospital Universitario Reina SofíaCórdobaEspaña

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