Journal of Chemical Sciences

, Volume 115, Issue 5–6, pp 401–410 | Cite as

Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference enhanced Raman scattering

  • S. Balaji
  • S. Mohan
  • D. V. S. Muthu
  • A. K. Sood


Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ripening of the grains occurs as the thickness of the film increases. Raman spectra of the Ge films reveal phonon confinement along the growth direction and show that the misfit strain is relieved for film thickness greater than 4 nm.


Ion beam sputtering ultra thin Ge films interference enhanced Raman spectroscopy phonon confinement atomic force microscopy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro, Bratkovski A M, Kamins T I, Ohlberg D A A and Williams S R 1998Science 279 353; Bean J C 1985Science 230 127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Das A K, Kamila J, Dev B N, Sundaravel B and Kuri G 2000Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mo Y W, Savage D E, Swartzentruber B S and Lagally M G 1990Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wedler G, Walz J, Hesjedal T, Chilla E and Koch R 1998Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tomitotori M, Watanadbe K, Kobayashi M K, Iwawaki F and Nishikawa O 1994Surface Sci. 301 214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walz J, Greuer A, Wedler G, Hesjedal T, Chilla V and Koch R 1998Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hammar M, LeGoues F K, Tersoff J, Reuter M C and Tromp R M 1996Surface Sci. 349 129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohring M 1992The material science of thin films (California: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Celler G K and Sorin C 2003J. Appl. Phys. 93 4956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Connell G A N, Nemanich R J and Tsai C C 1980Appl. Phys. Lett. 36 31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nemanich R J, Tsai C C and Connel G A N 1980Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kanakaraju S, Sood A K and Mohan S 1998J. Appl. Phys. 84 5756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanakaraju S, Sood A K and Mohan S 2000Phys. Rev. B61 8334Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kanakaraju S, Sood A K and Mohan S 2001Curr. Sci. 80 1550Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heavens O S 1955Optical properties of thin solid films (London: Butterworths Scientific Publications)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stekolnikov A A, Furthmuller J and Bechstedt F 2002Phys. Rev. B65 115318Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baudin M, Wojcik M and Hermansson K 2000Surface Sci. 468 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cuomo J J, Rosanagel S M and Kaufman H R (eds) 1989Hand book of ion beam processing technology (New Jersey: Noyes Publication)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tuinstra F and Koenig J L 1970J. Chem. Phys. 53 1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nemanich R J and Solin S A 1979Phys. Rev. B20 329Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richter H, Wang Z P and Ley L 1981Solid State Commun. 39 625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fauchet P M and Campbell I H 1988Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 14 S 79Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsson G and Nelin G 1971Phys. Rev. B3 364Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sutter P, Schwarz C, Muller E, Zelezny V, Gonacalves-Conto S and Von Kanel H 1994Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Balaji
    • 1
  • S. Mohan
    • 1
  • D. V. S. Muthu
    • 2
  • A. K. Sood
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of InstrumentationIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations