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Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 289–301 | Cite as

Role of conducting systems in the transduction of long-distance stress signals

  • Z. Starck
Review

Abstract

This review presents recent knowledge concerning integration between the reception of signals about abiotic or biotic stress conditions and the delivery of information to individual, even remote organs. In further consequence — physiological processes are affected e.g. pattern of biomass partitioning and growth. Strategy of optimal distribution of photosynthates increases the acclimation to stresses. Special attention is paid to the role of phloem and xylem as a superhighway, rapidly transmitting signals as well as products of stress gene expression: RNAs, proteins, transcription factors. The regulation of plant responses to adverse conditions is carried from the molecular to the whole organism level, not only by the modulation of gene expression, their stimulation and silencing, but also by a post-transcriptional control. Various signalling molecules including hormones, salicylic acid and systemin, play a pivotal role in the regulation of plant response to stresses. They are trafficking into conducting bundles. Some physical factors such as hydraulic pressure and electrical signals, with a much higher transmission velocity than chemical signalling molecules, also regulate the responses of plants to stresses. Both kinds of signals are propagated systemically through the plant body in a controlled way, in many cases by phloem or xylem. Several recent papers present the hypothesis of selective phloem loading and unloading especially of some macromolecular substances and viruses. Their transport may be surveillance also inside the sieve tubes.

Key words

abiotic and biotic stresses electrical hydraulic and chemical signals hormones phloem and xylem proteins and RNAs salicylic acid systemin viruses 

List of abbreviations

ABA

abscisic acid

AP

action potential

ABA-GE

glucose ester

ACC

1-cyclopropano-carboxilic acid

IAA

indoliloacetic acid

MBP

myelin basic proteins

MC

macromolecules

MP

movement proteins

Pd

plasmodesmata

PR

pathogenesis related proteins

PPO

polyphenoloxidase

PI or Pin

proteinase inhibitor

PIIF

proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor

PTGS

post-transcriptional gene silencing

RGR

relative growth rate

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RNP

ribonucleic proteins

TGS

transcriptional gene silencing

TMV

tobacco mosaic virus

SAM

shoot apical meristem

SAR

systemic acquired resistance

SEL

size exclusion limit

VP

variation potential

WT

wild type

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Copyright information

© Department of Plant Physiology 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Starck
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologyWarsaw Agricultural UniversityWarsawPoland

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