, Volume 28, Issue 3–4, pp 799–814 | Cite as

In-situ studies on phase transformations under electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope

  • S. Banerjee


High voltage electron microscopy (HVEM), using electron energies adequate for causing displacements of atoms from lattice sites, is a very effective technique for studying mechanisms of solid state phase transformations and for charting the path of phase evolution in real time. This has been demonstrated in studies on chemical ordering in nickel-molybdenum alloys and on theβ → Ω displacement ordering in zirconium-niobium alloys. The enhanced diffusivity due to electron irradiation makes it possible to explore a sequence of phase evolution at low enough temperatures where even some first-order transformations are driven by free energy (G) instabilities with respect to the relevant order parameter (η). Specific issues addressed in these studies are reviewed in this paper.


Electron irradiation phase transformations chemical ordering displacement ordering electron microscopy 


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© Printed in India 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Banerjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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