The results of stimulating human subjects with the LISS Cranial Stimulator (LCS) and the LISS Body Stimulator (LBS) include an increase or decrease in the activities of certain neurotransmitters and neurohormones and the reduction of associated pain, insomnia, depression, and spasticity. The effects were documented in human subjects with measurements of the serum concentration of the various agents and assessments of the symptoms being performed before and after stimulation. The stimulators had a carrier frequency of 15,000 hz, which utilizes the bulk capacitance of the body, and a 15 hz modulating bioactive frequency. The second modulating frequency presently used, 500 hz, reduces the energy input to the patient by half. Significant increases in levels of CSF serotonin and beta endorphin were recorded post stimulation. There were also elevations in the levels of plasma serotonin, beta endorphin, GABA and DHEA together with diminished levels of cortisol and tryptophan. Concomitant with these changes were significant improvements in the symptoms of pain, insomnia, spasticity, depression, and headache.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Cady, Roger; Shealy, C.N. (1991). Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Neurochemicals: Response to Cranial Electrical Stimulation, study grant from the Charlson Foundation.
Cassuto, J.; Liss, S.; Bennett, A. (1993). The Use of Modulated Energy Carried on a High Frequency Wave for the Relief of Intractable Pain,International Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Research XIII (4) pp239–241.
Childs, Allen (1993). Case Study: Fifteen-Cycle Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Spasticity,Brain Injury, Volume 2, March-April 1993.
Clark, Morris S.; Silverstone, Leon, M.; Lindenmuth, James; Hicks, M. John; Averbach, Robert E.; Kleier, Donald J. (1987). An Evaluation of the Clinical Analgesia/Anesthesia Efficacy on Acute Pain Using the High Frequency Neural Modulator in Various Dental Settings,Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Volume 63, No. 4, (April) pp. 501–505.
Closson, Wm. J. (1985). Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Production. Paper presented at the Polypeptide meeting at George Washington University.
Closson, Wm. J. (1988). Changes in Blood Biochemical Levels following Treatment with TENS Devices of Differing Frequency Composition, private experiment partially funded by Pain Suppression Labs Inc.
Closson, Wm. J. (1993). Kinetic Effects of Stimulation on Levels of Serotonin, Cortisol, ACTH, and beta-endorphin, private experiment.
Fromherz, Peter (1995). Neuron Talks to Chip and Chip to Nerve Cell,Journal of Physical Review Letters, August 21.
Gelb, H. (1977). Effective Management and Treatment of the Craniomandibular Syndrome. In H. Gelb (Ed.)Clinical Management of Head, Neck, and TMJ Pain and Dysfunction, a Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment, pp 287–308. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.
Granbard, Katherine; Hartline, Daniel S. (1987). Full-Wave Rectification from a Mixed Electrical-Chemical Synapse,Science Reports, Volume 237; 31 (July), pp. 535–537.
Hochman, Richard (1988). Neurotransmitter Modulator (TENS) for Control of Dental Operative Pain,Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. 116, February.
Hunt, Timothy, F. (1986). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation as a Means of Treating Neuropathological Disorders in Children, senior thesis, University of Utah, Division of Physical Therapy.
Konzelman, Joseph L. (1984–85). Glossodynia: A case report,CRANIO, Volume 3, No.1, Dec.–Feb.
Malden, Joan W.; Charash, Leon I. (1985). Transcranial Stimulation for the Inhibition of Primitive Reflexes in Children with Cerebral Palsy,Neurology Report APTA, Volume 9 No. 2, Spring.
Okoye, Renee; Malden, Joan W. (1986). Use of Neurotransmitter Modulation to Facilitate Sensory Integration,Neurology Report APTA, Volume 10, No.4, Fall.
Reilly, M.A.; Light, K.E. (1990). Movement Efficiency: Effects of Transcranial Stimulation on a Single Subject with Cerebral Palsy. Paper presented at the Forum on Efficacy of Physical Therapy Treatment for Patients with Brain Injury, at the combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association.
Romano, Thomas J. (1993). The usefulness of Cranial Electrotherapy in the Treatment of Headache in Fibromyalgia Patients,American Journal of Pain Management, Volume 3, No.1.
Rosch, Paul J. (1995). DHEA and the Fountain of Youth,Newsletter of the American Institute of Stress, No.8.
Shealy, C.N. (1979). Effects of Transcranial Neurostimulation upon Mood and Serotonin Production: A preliminary report,il Dolore, Volume 1, No.1, pp. 13–16.
Shealy, C.N.; Cady, Roger R.; Wilkie, Robert G.; Cox, Richard; Liss, Saul; Closson, William J., (1989). Depression, a Diagnostic, Neurochemical Profile & Therapy with Cranial Electrical Stimulation (CES),Journal of Neurological & Orthopaedic Medicine & Surgery, Vol.10, Issue 4, (December).
Shealy, C.N.; Cady, Roger R.; Veehof, Diane; Houston, Rita; Burnetti, Mariann; Cox, Richard; and Closson, William J. (1992). The Neurochemistry of Depression,American Journal of Pain Management, Volume 2, No.1, (January).
Shealy, C.N.; Cady, Roger K. (1994). Pain, Stress, and Depression: Psychoneuroimmunology and Therapy. Paper presented at the Sixth International Montreux Congress on Stress (awaiting publication).
Solomon, Seymour; Guglielmo, Karen (1985). Treatment of Headache by Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation,Headache Journal, Volume 25 No. 1, (January).
Solomon, Seymour; Elkind, Arthur; Freitag, Fred; Gallagher, R. Michael; Moore, Kenneth; Swerdlow, Bernard; Malkin, Stanley (1989). Safety and Effectiveness of Cranial Electrotherapy in the Treatment of Tension Headaches,Headache Journal, Volume 29, No. 7, (July).
Sornson, Robert; Liverance, Diane; Armstrong, George; Zelt, Beverly (1985). Neurotransmitter Modulation Benefits Adolescent Cerebral Palsy Students,American Journal of Electromedicine, (February).
Terezhalmy, G.T.; Ross, G.R.; Holmes-Johnson, E. (1982). Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Treatment of TMJ-MPDS Patients,Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal, (December).
Walker, J. Randy (1987). Alpha Wave changes in normal subjects before and after transcranial stimulation, as recorded by electroencephalography and changes in the levels of selected blood analytes in normal subjects before and after transcranial stimulation. Presented as a Ph.D. dissertation at Georgia State University Physical Therapy Department.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Liss, S., Liss, B. Physiological and therapeutic effects of high frequency electrical pulses. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 31, 88–95 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02699781
- Cerebral Palsy
- Carrier Frequency
- Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation