Skip to main content

Organizational and geopolitical approaches to international science and technology networks

Abstract

Recent views of science and technology have relied heavily on social network approaches. However, even within social network approaches, there are distinctive positions on international science and technology networks, depending on how boundaries and organizational processes are conceptualized. We contrast organizational approaches, exemplified by that of Shrum and Mullins, with geopolitical approaches, exemplified by Thomas Schott’s work. Problems and advantages of each approach are discussed. Finally, we propose that the difference between empirical levels of analysis and the part/whole distinction offers a preferable way of conceptualizing the micro-macro problem.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Anthony, C. (1988).Mechanization and maize: Agriculture and the politics of technology transfer in East Africa. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dore, R. (1989). Technology in a world of national frontiers.World Development, 17: 1665–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howells, J. (1990). The Internationalization of R&D and the Development of Global Research Networks.Journal of Regional Studies, 24: 495–512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Migdal, J. (1988).Strong societies and weak states: State-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schott, T. (1991). The world scientific community: Globality and globalisation.Minerva, 29: 440–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schott, T. (1993). Science: Its origin and the globalization of institutions and participation.Science, Technology, and Human Values.

  • Shrum, W. (1984). Scientific specialties and technical systems.Social Studies of Science, 14: 63–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shrum, W. (1985).Organized technology: Networks and innovation in technical systems. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrum, W., & Morris, J. (1990). Organizational constructs in the assembly of technological knowledge.Theories of science in society. In Gieryn, T. and Cozzens, S. (Eds.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrum, W., & Mullins, N. (1988). Network analysis in the study of science and technology. In van Raan, Anthony (Ed.).Handbook of Quantitative Studies in Science and Technology. Elsevier Science Publishers, 107–43

  • Shrum, W., & Wuthnow, R. (1988). Reputational status of organizations in technical systems.American Journal of Sociology, 93: 882–912.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sigurdson, J. (1990). The internationalization of R&D: An interpretation of forces and responses. Pp. 171–95 In J. Sigurdson, (Ed.).Measuring the dynamics of technical change. London: Pinter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wellman, B. (1988). Structural analysis: From method and metaphor to theory and substance. In Wellman, B., & Berkowitz, S.D.Social structures: A network approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 19–61.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

His interests are science and technology networks in developing countries, ritual, and the role of critics in the performing arts.

His interests are ethnic communities, immigrant adaptation, and Asian American studies.

An earlier version of this article was delivered in Gothenburg, Sweden, at a meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science in August 1992. We would like to thank Thomas Schott for his comments and clarifications.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shrum, W., Bankston, C. Organizational and geopolitical approaches to international science and technology networks. Knowledge and Policy 6, 119–133 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02696285

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02696285

Keywords

  • World System
  • Egocentric Network
  • Interorganizational Network
  • Scientific Specialty
  • Social Network Approach