Estuaries

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 156–165 | Cite as

Short-term water quality variability in two tropical estuaries, central Sumatra

Article

Abstract

We examined high frequency fluctuations in water quality parameters in two tropical coastal plain estuaries in response to changing tidal flow conditions. The variability in total suspended sediments (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations, and indicators of water quality, including pH, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, over one spring tidal cycle during the early wet monsoon season was measured in two estuaries in eastern Sumatra. The relatively high rainfall experienced throughout the year, in combination with the recent extensive vegetation clearing and modification of the landscape, resulted in significant concentrations of TSS, VSS, and TOC being discharged to coastal waters. Maximum values are reached on the ebb tide (TSS > 1,013 mg l−1; VSS > 800 mg l−1; TOC >60 mg l−1). The influence of freshwater discharge and tidal flow on water properties of the lower estuaries is also marked by the variability in salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH over the tidal cycle, with minimum values for each of these parameters following maximum current velocities and after the completion of the strong ebb tide. Estimation of seaward sediment fluxes, which are of significant interest in a region where rapid environmental change is occurring, would require further examination of sedimentary processes, such as resuspension and advection of sediment, as well as a consideration of neap-spring tidal variations and the effect of seasonality on estuarine circulation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Brenon, I. andP. Le Hir. 1999. Modeling the turbidity maximum in the Seine estuary (France): Identification of formation processes.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 49:525–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bryce, S., P. Larcombe, andP. V. Ridd. 1998. The relative importance of landward-directed tidal sediment transport versus freshwater flood events in the Normanby River estuary, Cape York Peninsula, Australia.Marine Geology 149:55–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dalrymple, R. W., B. A. Zaitlin, andR. Boyd. 1992. A conceptual model of estuarine circulation.Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62:1130–1146.Google Scholar
  4. Dyer, K. R. 1986. Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Dyer, K. R. 1997. Estuaries: A Physical Introduction. John wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  6. Eyre, B. andP. Balls. 1999. A comparative study of nutrient behavior along the salinity gradient of tropical and temperature estuaries.Estuaries 22:313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eyre, B. andL. France. 1997. Importance of marine inputs to the sediment and nutrient load of coastal-plain estuaries: A case study of Pumicestone Passage, south-eastern Queensland, Australia.Marine and Freshwater Research 48:277–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eyre, B. andC. Twigg. 1997. Nutrient behavior during post-flood recovery of the Richmond River estuary northern NSW, Australia.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44:311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fairbridge, R. W. 1980. The estuary: Its definition and geodynamic cycle, p. 1–35.In E. Olausson and I. Cato (eds.), Chemistry and Biogeochemistry of Estuaries. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Fettweis, M., M. Sas, andJ. Monbaliu. 1998. Seasonal, neap-spring and tidal variation of cohesive sediment concentration in the Scheldt estuary, Belgium.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 47:21–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Furukawa, H. 1994. Coastal Wetlands of Indonesia: Environment, Subsistence and Exploitation. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto, Japan.Google Scholar
  12. Gupta, A. 1996. Erosion and sediment yield in southeast Asia: A regional perspective, p. 215–222.In D. E. Walling and B. W. Webb (eds.), Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global and Regional Perspectives. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Publication no. 236, Wallingford, U.K.Google Scholar
  13. Hayes, M. O. 1975. Morphology of sand accumulation in estuaries: An introduction to the symposium, p. 3–22.In L. E. Cronin (ed.), Estuarine Research, Volume II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Hedges, J. I., G. L. Cowie, J. E. Richey, andP. D. Quay. 1994. Origins and processing of organic matter in the Amazon River as indicated by carbohydrates and amino acids.Limnology and Oceanography 39:743–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Imberger, J., T. Berman, R. R. Christian, E. B. Sherr, D. E. Whitney, L. R. Pomeroy, R. G. Wiegert, andW. J. Wiebe. 1983. The influence of water motion on the distribution and transport of materials in a salt marsh estuary.Limnology and Oceanography 28:201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jago, C. F. 1980. Contemporary accumulation of marine sand in a macrotidal estuary, southwest Wales.Sedimentary Geology 26:21–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kinsman, B. 1965. Lectures on estuarine oceanography, Delivered by D. W. Pritchard, October 3 through December 14, 1960. Chesapeak Bay Institute and Department of Oceanography. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  18. Kitheka, J. U. 1997. Coastal tidally-driven circulation and the role of water exchange in the linkage between tropical coastal ecosystems.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 45:177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kitheka, J. U., B. O. Ohowa, B. M. Mwashote, W. S. Shimbira, J. M. Mwaluma, andJ. M. Kazungu. 1996. Water circulation dynamics, water column nutrients and plankton productivity in a well-flushed tropical bay in Kenya.Journal of Sea Research 35:257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laumonier, Y. 1997. The Vegetation and Physiography of Sumatra. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  21. Li, J. F. andZ. Chen. 1998. Sediment resuspension and implications for turbidity maximum in the Changjiang estuary.Marine Geology 148:117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindsay, P., P. W. Balls, andJ. R. West. 1996. Influence of tidal range and river discharge on suspended particulate matter fluxes in the Forth estuary (Scotland).Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42:63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ludwig, W., J. L. Probst, andS. Kempe. 1996. Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion.Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MacNae, W. 1968. A general account of the flora and fauna of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West-Pacific region.Advances in Marine Biology 6:73–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayer, L. M., R. G. Keil, S. A. Macko, S. B. Joye, K. C. Ruttenberg, andR. C. Aller. 1998. Importance of suspended particulates in riverine delivery of bioavailable nitrogen to coastal zones.Global Biogeochemical Cycles 12:573–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meade, R. H. 1972. Transport and deposition of sediment in estuaries.Geological Society of America Memoir 133:91–120.Google Scholar
  27. Milliman, J. D., K. L. Farnsworth, andC. S. Albertin. 1999. Flux and fate of fluvial sediments leaving large islands in the East Indies.Journal of Sea Research 41:97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitchell, S. B., J. R. West, A. M. W. Arundale, I. Guymer, andU. K. Couperthwaite. 1998 Dynamics of the turbidity maxima in the upper Humber estuary system U.K.Marine Pollution Bulletin 37:190–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nittrouer, C. A., G. J. Brunskill, andA. G. Figueiredo. 1995. Importance of tropical coastal environments.Geo-Marine Letters 15:121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perillo, G. M. E. 1995. Definitions and geomorphological classifications of estuaries, p. 17–47.In G. M. E. Perillo (ed.), Geomorphology and Sedimentology of Estuaries, Developments in Sedimentology 53. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith, S. V., R. M. Chambers, andJ. T. Hollibaugh. 1996. Dissolved and particulate nutrient transport through a coastal watershed-estuary system.Journal of Hydrology 176:181–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sobur, A. S., M. J. Chambers, R. Chambers, S. Damapoli, andA. J. Hanson. 1977. Remote Sensing Applications in the Southeast Sumatra Coastal Environment. IPB, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  33. Sondi, I., M. Juracic, andV. Pravdic. 1995. Sedimentation in a disequilibrium river-dominated estuary: The Rasa River estuary (Adriatic Sea, Croatia).Sedimentology 42:769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stern, M. K., J. W. Day, Jr., andK. G. Teague. 1986. Seasonality of materials transport through a coastal freshwater marsh: Riverine versus tidal forcing.Estuaries 9:301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tan, P. M. 1999. the political ecology of coastal resource access in a Sumatran fishing village. Honors Thesis, National University of Singapore, Singapore.Google Scholar
  36. Taylor, D., S. Couturier, P. Sanderson, M. Ali, and G. Lee. In press. the prediction of concentrations of suspended sediments in river and coastal Java Sea waters from passive reflectance.Remote Sensing of Environment.Google Scholar
  37. Uncles, R. J., A. E. Easton, M. L. Griffiths, C. Harris, R. J. M. Howland, R. S. King, A. W. Morris, andD. H. Plummer. 1998. Seasonality of the turbidity maximum in the Humber-Ouse estuary U.K.Marine Pollution Bulletin 37:206–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Uncles, R. J. andJ. A. Stephens. 1999. Suspended sediment fluxes in the tidal Ouse, U.K.Hydrological Processes 13:1167–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Leussen, W. 1991. Fine sediment transport under tidal action.Geo-Marine Letters 11:119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ward, L. G. andR. R. Twilley. 1986. Seasonal distributions of suspended particulate material and dissolved nutrients in a coastal plain estuary.Estuaries 9:156–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolanski, E. 1992. Hydrodynamics of mangrove swamps and their coastal waters.Hydrobiologia 247:141–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wolanski, E., M. Jones, andJ. S. Bunt. 1990. Hydrodynamics of a tidal creek-mangrove swamp system.Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31:431–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zarillo, G. A. 1985. Tidal dynamics and substrate response in a salt-marsh estuary.Marine Geology 67:13–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyNational University of SingaporeKent Ridge
  2. 2.Department of GeographyTrinity CollegeDublin 2Ireland

Personalised recommendations