Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P. & Teasdale, J. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87: 49–74.
Alloy, L. B. & Tabachnik, N. (1984). Assessment of covariation by humans and animals: The joint influence of prior expectations and current situational information.Psychological Review, 91: 112–149.
Anisman, H. & Sklar, L. (1979). Catecholamine depletion in mice upon reexposure to stress: Mediation of the escape deficits produced by inescapable shock.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 93: 610–625.
Banks, S. M. & Kerns, R. D. (1996). Explaining high rates of depression in chronic pain: A diathesis-stress framework.Psychological Bulletin, 119: 95–110.
Brookshire K. H., Littman, R. A. & Stewart, C. N. (1961). Residua of shock-trauma in the white rat: A three-factor theory.Psychological Monographs, 75 (10): 1–32.
Dess, N. K. & Overmier, J. B. (1989). General learned irrelevance: Proactive effects on Pavlovian conditioning in dogs.Learning & Motivation, 20: 1–14.
Dweck, C. S. & Licht, B. G. (1980). Learned helplessness and intellectual achievement. In J. Garber & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.),Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 197–221). New York: Academic Press.
Dweck, C. S. & Wortman, C. B. (1982). Learned helplessness, anxiety, and achievement motivation: Neglected parallels in cognitive, affective, and coping responses. Series in Clinical & Community Psychology: Achievement, Stress, & Anxiety, 1982: 93–125
Garmezy, N. & Masten, A. S. (1986). Stress, competence, and resilience: Common frontiers for therapist and psychopathologist.Behavior Therapy, 17: 500–521.
Guillamon, A. & Parra, A. (1989). Revision del fenomeno de la indefension aprendida.Psicopatologia, 9: 15–18.
Katz, R. & Sibel, M. (1982). Animal model of depression: Tests of three structurally and pharmacologically novel antidepressant compounds.Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 16:973–977.
Laudenslager, M. L., Fleshner, M., Hofstader, P., Held, P. E., Simons, L. & Maier, S. F. (1988). Suppression of specific antibody production by inescapable shock: Stability under varying conditions.Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 2: 92–101.
Levis, D. J. (1976). A reply and alternative S-R interpretation.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105: 47–65.
LoLordo, V. M. (2001). Learned helplessness and depression. In M. E. Carroll & J. B. Overmier (Eds.)Animal research and human health: Advancing human welfare through behavioral science (pp. 63–77). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Maier, S. F. (1984). Learned helplessness and animal models of depression.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 8: 435–446.
Maier, S. F. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105: 3–46.
Maier, S. F., Sherman, J. E., Lewis, J. W., Terman, G. W. & Leibeskind, J. C. (1983). The opiod/nonopioid nature of stress-induced analgesia and learned helplessness.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 9: 80–90.
Mormede, P., Dantzer, R., Michaud, B., Kelly, K. & LeMoal, M. (1988) Influence of stressor predictability and behavioral control on lymphocyte reactivity, antibody responses, and neuroendocrine activation in rats.Physiology & Behavior, 43: 577–583.
Mowrer, O. H. (1947). On the dual nature of learning—A reinterpretation of “conditioning” and “problem solving”.Harvard Educational Review, 17: 102–148.
Mowrer, O. H. & Viek, P. (1948). An experimental analog of fear from a sense of helplessness.Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 43: 193–200.
Murison, R. & Isaksen, E. (1982). Gastric ulceration and adrenocortical activity after inescapable and escapable pre-shock in rats.Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1: 133–137.
Overmier, J. B. (1985). Towards a reanalysis of the causal structure of the learned helplessness syndrome. In F. R. Brush & J. B. Overmier (Eds.),Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior (pp. 211–227). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Overmier, J. B. (1996). Richard L. Solomon and learned helplessness.Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 31: 331–337.
Overmier, J. B. (1998). Learned helplessness: State or stasis of the art? In M. Sabourin, F. Craik & M. Robert (Eds.),Advances in psychological science, Vol. 2: Biological and cognitive aspects (pp. 301–315). Hove, England: Psychology Press.
Overmier, J. B. & Hellhammer, D. (1988). The learned helplessness model of human depression. In P. Simon P. Soubrie & D. Widlocher (Eds.),Animal models of psychiatric disorders, Vol. 2, An inquiry into schizophrenia and depression (pp. 177–202). Basel: Karger.
Overmier, J. B. & Leaf, R. C. (1965). Effects of discriminative Pavlovian fear conditioning upon previously or subsequently acquired avoidance responding.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 60: 213–217.
Overmier, J. B. & Murison, R. (2000). Anxiety and helplessness in the face of stress predisposes, precipitates, and sustains gastric ulceration.Behavioural Brain Research, 110: 161–174.
Overmier, J. B. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance learning.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 63: 28–33.
Overmier, J. B. & Lolordo, V. M. (1998). Learned helplessness. In W. O’Donohue (Ed.),Learning and Behavior Therapy (pp. 352–373). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Overmier, J. B. & Wielkiewicz, R. M. (1983). On unpredicability as a causal factor in learned helplessness.Learning & Motivation, 14: 324–337.
Peterson, C., Maier, S. F. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993).Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence.Psychological Review, 91: 347–374.
Petty, F., Chae, Y. L., Kramer, G. & Jordan, S. (1994). Learned helplessness sensitzes hippocampal norepinephrine to mild stress.Biological Psychiatry, 35: 903–908.
Prabhakar, T. & Job, R. F. S. (1996). The effects of order of shock durations on helplessness in rats.Animal Learning & Behavior, 24: 175–182.
Ric, F. (1996). L’impuissance acquise (learned helplessness) chez l'etre humain: Une presentation theorique (A review of theoretical explanations for learned helplessness in humans).Annee Psychologique, 96: 677–702.
Robins, C. J. & Block, P. (1989). Cognitive theories of depression viewed from a diathesis-stress perspective: Evaluation of the models of Beck and Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale.Cognitive Therapy & Research, 13: 297–313.
Seligman, M. E. (1972). Learned helplessness.Annual Review of Medicine, 1972, 207–412.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1991).Learned optimism. New York: Knopf.
Seligman, M. E. P. & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74: 1–9.
Sklar, L. S. & Anisman, H. (1979). Stress and coping factors influence tumor growth.Science, 205: 513–515.
Tsuda, A. & Tanaka, M. (1985). Differential changes in noradrenaline turnover in specific regions of rat brain produced by controllable and uncontrollable shocks.Behavioural Neuroscience, 99: 802–817.
Volpicelli, J. R., Ulm, R. R., Altenor, A. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1983). Learned mastery in the rat.Learning & Motivation, 14, 204–222.
Weintraub, M. & Schulman, A. [Eds.] (1980). Coping behavior: Learned helplessness, physiological change, and learned inactivity—An interchange between Martin E. P. Seligman and Jay Weiss.Behaviour Research & Therapy, 18: 457–512.
Weiss, J. M., Goodman, P. A., Losito, B. G., Corrigan, S., Charry, J. M. & Bailey, W. H. (1981). Behavioral depression produced by an uncontrollable stressor: Relationship to norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin levels in rats.Brain Research Reviews, 3: 167–205.