Alloy, L. B., & Ahrens, A. H. (1987). Depression and pessimism for the future: Biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions of the self versus others.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 366–378.
Atkinson, J. A. (1958).Motives in fantasy, action, and society: A method of assessment and study. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand.
Barker, P. (1985).Using metaphors in psychotherapy. New York: Brunner Mazel.
Beck, A. (1967).Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.
Campbell, J. D. (1986). Similarity and uniqueness: The effects of attribute type, relevance, and individual differences in self-esteem and depression.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 281–294.
Conway, M., & Ross, M. (1984). Getting what you want by revising what you had.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 738–748.
Dember, W.N., & Brooks, J. (1989). A new instrument for measuring optimism and pessimism: Test-retest reliability and relations with happiness and religious commitment.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 365–366.
Dember, W.N., Martin, S., Hummer, M., Howe, S., & Melton, R. (1989). The measurement of optimism and pessimism.Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 8, 102–119.
Dember, W.N., & Penwell, L. (1980). Happiness, depression and the Pollyanna principle.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15, 321–323.
Funder, D. C. (1987). Errors and mistakes: Evaluating the accuracy of social judgment.Psychological Bulletin, 101, 75–90.
Grasha, A. F. (1990). Practical poetry: Using metaphors to evaluate academic programs.Journal of Staff, Program & Organization Development, 8, 23–32.
Grasha, A.F. (1991).The holistic stress test manual. Cincinnati, OH: Communication and Education Associates.
Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.American Psychologist, 35, 603–618.
Hummer, M. K. (1990).The differential vulnerability of optimism and pessimism to response sets. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Hummer, M. K., Dember, W. N., Melton, R. S., & Schefft, B. K. (1992). On the partial independence of optimism and pessimism.Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 11, 37–50.
Kamen, L., Seligman, M., & Rodin, J. (1987). Unpublished data, University of Pennsylvania.
Kloss, R. J. (1987). Coaching and playing right field: Trying on metaphors for teaching.College Teaching, 35, 134–139.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980).Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Matlin, M., & Stang, D. (1978).The Pollyanna principle. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
Murray, H. (1943).Thematic apperception test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Natali-Alemany, R. M. (1991).Moods, coping, and perception of daily life events: Are these factors related to optimism and pessimism? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Newman, M. K. (1983).The measurement of optimism/pessimism. Unpublished master thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986). Defensive pessimism: Harnessing anxiety as motivation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1208–1217.
Nowicki, S., & Duke, M. P. (1974). A locus of control scale for noncollege as well as college adults.Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 136–137.
Peterson, C., Seligman, M., & Vaillant, G. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: a thirty-five year longitudinal study.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23–27.
Peterson, C., Luborsky, L., & Seligman, M. (1983). Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context method.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 96–103.
Pollio, H. (1987). Practical poetry: Metaphoric thinking in science, art, literature and nearly everywhere else.Teaching-Learning Issues, 60, 3–18.
Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychological Monographs, 80, (1, Whole No. 609).
Scheier, M., & Carver, C. (1985). Optimism, coping and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.
Seligman, M., Abramson, L., Semmel, A., & von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive attributional styles.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 242–247.
Seligman, M., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., & Thornton, K. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance.Psychological Science, 1, 143–146.
Shell, L., Pollio, H., & Smith, M. (1987). “Metaphor as Mitsein.” In R. Heiskell (Ed.),The Psychology of Metaphor Transformations. New Jersey: Ablex Co.
Showers, C., & Ruben, C. (1990). Distinguishing defensive pessimism from depression: Negative expectations and positive coping mechanisms.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 385–399.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.),Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health.Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.
Zuckerman, M. (1980). Sensation seeking. In H. London & J. E. Exner Jr. (Eds.),Dimensions of personality. New York: Wiley.