Although union density is much lower in Right-to-Work (RTW) states than in states permitting union shops, most studies have found that after correcting for omitted-variable and simultaneity biases, RTW laws do not have independent impact on union density. However, these studies typically use data sets which include certain government, agricultural, supervisory and transportation workers who are not subject to RTW legislation thus diluting the effect of RTW laws. When these employees are excluded from the data set, we find that RTW laws do significantly affect union density in the private sector.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Amemiya, Takeshi. “Qualitative Response Models.”Journal of Economic Literature 19 (December 1981): 1483–536.
Carroll, Thomas M. “Right-To-Work Laws Do Matter?”Southern Economic Journal 50 (October 1983): 494–509.
Congressional Quarterly. May 2, 1992, 1203–205.
Davis, Joe, and John Huston. “Right-to-Work Laws and Free Riding.”Economic Inquiry 31 (January 1993): 52–58.
Ellwood, David T., and Glenn Fine. “The Impact of Right-to-Work Laws on Union Organizing.”Journal of Political Economy 95 (April 1987): 250–73.
Farber, Henry S. “Right-to-Work Laws and the Extent of Unionization.”Journal of Labor Economics 2 (July 1984): 319–52.
_____. “The Extent of Unionization in the United States.” InChallenges Facing American Labor. Edited by Thomas A. Kochan. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1985.
Heckman, James J. “Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System.”Econometrica 46 (July 1978): 931–59.
Hirsch, Barry T. “The Determinants of Unionization: An Analysis of Interarea Differences.”Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33 (January 1980): 147–61.
Ichniowski, Casey, and Jeffrey Zax. “Right-to-Work Laws, Free Riders, and Unionization in the Local Public Sector.”Journal of Labor Economics 9 (July 1991): 255–75.
Kennedy, Peter.A Guide to Econometrics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1985.
Koeller, Charles T. “Wages, Trade Union Activity, and the Political Environment of Unionism: A Simultaneous Equation Model.”Journal of Labor Research 6 (Spring 1985): 147–65.
Moore, William J., and Robert J. Newman. “The Effects of Right-to-Work Laws: A Review of the Literature.”Industrial and Labor Relations Review 38 (July 1985): 571–85.
Moore, William J., James A. Dunlevy, and Robert J. Newman. “Do Right to Work Laws Matter? Comment.”Southern Economic Journal 52 (October 1986): 515–24.
National Labor Relations Board.Fifty-Third Annual Report of the National Labor Relations Board for the Fiscal Year Ended September, 1988. Washington D.C.: NLRB, 1990.
Nieswiadomy, Michael, Daniel J. Slottje, and Kathy Hayes. “The Impact of Unionization, Right-to-Work Laws, and Female Labor Force Participation on Earnings Inequality Across States.”Journal of Labor Research 12 (Spring 1991): 185–95.
U.S. Bureau of the Census.County Business Patterns, 1985. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1987.
U.S. Bureau of the Census.Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1991. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1991.
Warren, Ronald S., and Robert P. Strauss. “A Mixed Logit Model of the Relationship between Unionization and Right-To-Work Legislation.”Journal of Political Economy 87 (June 1979): 648–54.
Waters, Melissa, R. Carter Hill, William J. Moore, and Robert J. Newman. “A Simultaneous Equations Model of the Relationship Between Public Sector Bargaining Legislation and Unionization.” Mimeo.
Wessels, Walter J. “Economic Effects of Right-To-Work Laws.”Journal of Labor Research 2 (Spring 1981): 55–75.
About this article
Cite this article
Davis, J.C., Huston, J.H. Right-to-work laws and union density: New evidence from micro data. Journal of Labor Research 16, 223–229 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02685742
- Union Member
- Union Membership
- Union Density
- National Labor Relation
- Southern Economic Journal