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Are unionized blue collar jobs more hazardous than nonunionized blue collar jobs?


The University of Michigan’s Quality of Employment Survey for 1977 (QES) contains 13 questions pertaining to health and safety conditions at the workplace. Using these questions, together with the injury rate associated with the worker’s industry, this study finds evidence that unionized blue collar jobs are more hazardous than nonunionized blue collar jobs whether hazards are defined as resulting in injury or disease. In addition, the evidence suggests that age, schooling, and being female are negatively associated with the probability of holding a hazardous job. Race has no apparent effect on the probability.

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Leigh, J.P. Are unionized blue collar jobs more hazardous than nonunionized blue collar jobs?. Journal of Labor Research 3, 349–357 (1982).

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  • Time Preference
  • Union Member
  • Injury Rate
  • Linear Probability Model
  • Safety Hazard