Skip to main content
Log in

The importance of slice location on the accuracy of aortic regurgitation measurements with magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping

  • Research Articles
  • Published:
Annals of Biomedical Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Although several methods have been used clinically to evaluate the severity of aortic regurgitation, there is no purely quantitative approach for aortic regurgitant volume (ARV) measurements. Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping can be used to quantify the ARV, with a single imaging slice in the ascending aorta, from through-slice velocity measurements. To investigate the accuracy of this technique,in vitro experiments were performed with a compliant model of the ascending aorta. Our goals were to study the effects of slice location on the reliability of the ARV measurements and to determine the location that provides the most accurate results. It was found that when the slice was placed between the aortic valve and the coronary ostia, the measurements were most accurate. Beyond the coronary ostia, aortic compliance and coronary flow negatively affected the accuracy of the measurements, introducing significant errors. This study shows that slice location is important in quantifying the ARV accurately. The higher accuracy achieved with the slice placed between the aortic valve and the coronary ostia suggests that this slice location should be considered and thoroughly examined as the preferred measurement site clinically.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Angelsen, B. A. J., S. A. Slordahl, J. E. Solbakken, S. O. Samstad, D. T. Linker, H. Torp, and H. Piene. Estimation of regurgitant volume and orifice in aortic regurgitation combining CW Doppler and parameter estimation in a Windkessel-like model.IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37:930–936, 1990.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Carlson, R. G., C. W. Lillihei, and J. E. Edwards. Cystic media necrosis of the ascending aorta in relation to age and hypertension.Am. J. Cardiol. 25:411–415, 1970.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Ciobanu, M., A. S. Abbasi, M. Allen, A. Hermer, and R., Spellberg. Pulsed Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of severity of aortic regurgitation.Am. J. Cardiol. 49: 339–343, 1982.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Cranney, G. B., C. S. Lotan, and G. M. Pohost. Evaluation of aortic regurgitation by magnetic resonance imaging.Curr. Probl. Cardiol. 15:87–114, 1990.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Croft, C. H., K. Lipscomb, K. Mathis, B. G. Firth, P. Nicod, G. Tilton, M. D. Winnford, and L. D. Hillis. Limitations of qualitative angiographic grading in aortic or mitral regurgitation.Am. J. Cardiol. 53:1593–1598, 1984.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Dulce, M.-C., G. H. Mostbeck, M. O’Sullivan, M. Cheitlin, G. R. Caputo, and C. B. Higgins. Severity of aortic regurgitation: interstudy reproducibility of measurements with velocity-encoded cine MR imaging.Radiology. 185:234–240, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Firmin, D. N., G. L. Nayler, R. H. Klipstein, S. R. Underwood, R. S. O. Rees, and D. B. Longmore. In vivo validation of MR velocity imaging.J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11: 751–756, 1987.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Globits, S., H. Mayr, A. Neuhold, and D. Globar. Quantitative assessment of aortic regurgiation by magnetic resonance imaging.Eur. Heart J. 13:78–83, 1992.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Holm, S., P. Eriksson, K. Karp, G. Osterman, and D. Teien. Quantitative assessment of aortic regurgitation by combined two-dimensional, continuous-wave and colour flow Doppler measurements.J. Intern. Med. 231:115–121, 1992.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Honda, N., K. Machida, M. Hashimoto, T. Mamiya, T. Takahashi, T. Kamano, A. Kashimada, Y. Inoue, S. Tanaka, N. Yoshimoto, and H. Matsuo. Aortic regurgitation: quantitation with MR imaging velocity mapping.Radiology. 186: 189–194, 1993.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kilner, P. J., D. N. Firmin, R. S. O. Rees, J. Martinez, D. J. Pennell, R. H. Mohiaddin, S. R. Underwood, and D. B. Longmore. Valve and great vessel stenosis: assessment with MR jet velocity mapping.Radiology. 178:229–235, 1991.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Kouwenhoven, M., M. B. M. Hofman, and M. Sprenger. Motion induced phase shifts in MR: acceleration effects in quantitative flow measurements—a reconsideration.Magn. Reson. Med. 33:766–777, 1995.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Meier, D., S. Maier, and P. Bœsiger. Quantitative flow measurements on phantoms and on blood vessels with MR.Magn. Reson. Med. 8:25–34, 1988.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Oshinski, J. N., D. N. Ku, D. E. Bohning, and R. I. Pettigrew. Effects of acceleration on the accuracy of MR phase velocity measurements.J. Magn. Reson. Imag. 2:665–670, 1992.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Pelc, N. J., G. Sommer, K. C. P. Li, T. J. Brosnan, R. J. Herfkens, and D. R. Enzmann. Quantitative magnetic resonance flow imaging.Magn. Reson. Q. 10:125–147, 1994.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Perry, G. J., F. Helmcke, N. C. Nanda, C. Byard, and B. Soto. Evaluation of aortic insufficiency by Doppler color flow mapping.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 9:952–959, 1987.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Reynolds, T., J. Abate, A. Tenney, and M. G. Warner. The JH/LVOH method in the quantification of aortic regurgitation: how the cardiac sonographer may avoid an important potential pitfall.J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 4:105–108, 1991.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Sechtem, U., P. W. Pflugfelder, M. M. Cassidy, R. D. White, M. D. Cheitlin, N. B. Schiller, and C. B. Higgins. Mitral of aortic regurgitation: quantification of regurgitant volumes with cine MR imaging.Radiology 167:425–430, 1988.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Snider, A. R., M. A. Enderlein, D. F. Teitel, and R. P. Juster. Two-dimensional eehocardiographic determination of aortic and pulmonary artery sizes from infancy to adulthood in normal subjects.Am. J. Cardiol. 53:218–224, 1984.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Søndergaard, L., K. Lindvig, P. Hildebrandt, C. Thompsen, F. Stahlberg, T. Joen, and O. Henriksen. Quantification of aortic regurgitation by magnetic resonance velocity mapping.Am. Heart J. 125:1080–1090, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Søndergaard, L., P. Hildebrandt, K. Lindvig, C. Thompsen, F. Stahlberg, E. Kassis, and O. Henriksen. Valve area and cardiac output in aortic stenosis: quantification by magnetic resonance velocity mapping.Am. Heart J. 125:1156–1164, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Suzuki, J.-I., G. R. Caputo, C. Kondo, and C. B. Higgins. Cine MR imaging of valvular heart disease: display and imaging parameters affect the size of the signal void caused by valvular regurgitation.Am. J. Roentgenol. 155:723–727, 1990.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Taylor, A. L., E. J. Eichhorn, M. E. Brickner, R. C. Eberhart, and P. A. Grayburn. Aortic valve morphology: an importantin vitro determinant of the proximal regurgitant jet width by Doppler color flow mapping.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 16:405–412, 1990.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Veyrat, C., A. Ameur, C. Gourtchiglouian, A. Lessana, G. Abitbol, and D. Kalmanson. Calculation of pulsed Doppler left ventricular outflow tract regurgitant index for grading the severity of artic regurgitation.Am. Heart J. 108:507–515, 1984.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Wagner, S., W. Auffermann, P. Buser, T. H. Lim, B. Kircher, P. Pflugfelder, and C. B. Higgins. Diagnostic accuracy and estimation of the severity of valvular regurgitation from the signal void on cine magnetic resonance images.Am. Heart J. 118:760–767, 1989.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Walker, P. G., G. B. Cranney, M. B. Scheidegger, G. Waseleski, G. M. Pohost, and A. P. Yoganathan. Semiautomated method for noise reduction and background phase error correction in MR phase velocity data.J. Magn. Reson. Imag. 3:521–530, 1993.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Walker, P. G., S. Oyre, E. M. Pedersen, K. Houlind, F. S. A. Guenet, and A. P. Yoganathan. A new control volume method for calculating valvular regurgitation.Circulation 92:579–586, 1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chatzimavroudis, G.P., Walker, P.G., Oshinski, J.N. et al. The importance of slice location on the accuracy of aortic regurgitation measurements with magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping. Ann Biomed Eng 25, 644–652 (1997).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: