Skip to main content

Early stages of aging and tempering of ferrous martensites

Abstract

The early stages of aging/tempering of ferrous martensites have been studied over a wide range of carbon contents by numerous experimental techniques. A kinetic framework is presented which allows a correlation of many diverse observations. Three general regimes of structural change termed relaxation, aging, and tempering can be further subdivided, thus identifying two stages of aging (Al and A2) which precede the conventional stages of tempering (T1-T3). The first stage of aging involves clustering of carbon atoms in c-oriented octahedral sites, while the second stage is associated with a modulated tweed microstructure containing high-carbon regions which may be interpreted as either advanced carbon clusters or coherent transition carbides. Alloy compositions are proposed to better correlate future complementary experiments required to determine these unus11Al structures more precisely.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Reference

  1. P.C. Chen and P. G. Winchell:Metall. Trans. A, 1980, vol. 11A, pp. 1333–39.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. A. M. Sherman, G. T. Eldis, and M. Cohen:Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, p. 995.

    Google Scholar 

  3. M. Hayakawa, Y. Uemura, and M. Oka:Metall. Trans. A, 1981, vol. 12A, pp. 1545–47.

    Google Scholar 

  4. P. G. Winchell and M. Cohen:Trans. ASM, 1962, vol. 55, pp. 347–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. A. K. Sachdev and P. G. Winchell:Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 59–63.

    Google Scholar 

  6. V.G. Veeraraghavan and P.G. Winchell:Metall. Trans. A, 1975, vol. 6A, pp. 701–05.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. M. M. Hall and P. G. Winchell:Acta Met., 1977, vol. 25, pp. 735–50.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. R. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell:J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1977, vol. 10, pp. 66–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. P.C. Chen, B.O. Hall, and P.G. Winchell:Metall. Trans. A, 1980, vol. 11 A, pp. 1323–32.

    Google Scholar 

  10. L.I. Lsak,Y.N. Vouk, A.G. Drachinskaya,and Yu.M. Polishchuk:Phys. Met. Metallogr., 1967, vol. 24, pp. 95–100.

    Google Scholar 

  11. D.W. Hffman and M. Cohen:Acta Met., 1973, vol. 21, pp. 1215–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. M. Hillert:Acta Met., 1959, vol. 7, pp. 653–58.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. N. A. Gjostein:Diffusion, ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1973, pp. 241–74.

    Google Scholar 

  14. K. A. Taylor: MIT doctoral research in progress.

  15. G. T. Eldis and M. Cohen:Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, p. 1007.

    Google Scholar 

  16. R.L. Brown, H.J. Rack, and M. Cohen:Mat. Sci. Eng., 1975, vol. 21, pp. 25–34.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. T. A. Balliett and G. Krauss:Metall. Trans. A, 1976, vol. 7A, pp. 81–85.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. T. Vilo and J. Pietikäinen,Proc. Int. Conf. Mart. Transf. (ICOMAT-79), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979, pp. 721–27.

    Google Scholar 

  19. W.K. Choo and R. Kaplow:Acta Met., 1973, vol. 21, pp. 725–32.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. N. DeCristofaro, R. Kaplow, and W. S. Owen:Metall. Trans. A, 1978, vol. 9A, pp. 821–25.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. A.K. Sachdev: Sc.D. Thesis, MIT, June 1977.

  22. A.K. Sachdev and J.B. Vander Sande: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, unpublished research, 1977.

  23. S. Nagakura, Y. Horotsu, M. Kusunoki, T. Suzuki, and Y. Nakamura:Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, p. 1025.

    Google Scholar 

  24. M. Kusunoki and S. Nagakura:J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1981, vol. 14, pp. 329–36.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. P. J. Fillingham, H. J. Leamy, and L. E. Tanner:Eledron Microscopy and Structure of Materials, G. Thomas, ed. Univ. Cal. Press, Berkeley, CA, 1972, pp. 163–72.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Y. Hirotsu and S. Nagakura:Acta Met., 1972, vol. 20, pp. 645–55.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. D.L. Williamson, K. Nakazawa, and G. Krauss:Metall. Trans. A, 1979, vol. 10A, pp. 1351–63.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. M.K. Miller, P.A. Beaven, G. D. W. Smith, and S.S. Brenner:Proc. Int. Conf. on Solid → Solid Phase Transformations, H.I. Aaronson, D.E. Laughlin, R.F. Sekerka, and C.M. Wayman, eds., TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1982, pp. 863–67.

    Google Scholar 

  29. M.K. Miller, P.A. Beaven, S.S. Brenner, and G.D.W. Smith:Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14A, p. 1021.

    Google Scholar 

  30. G.R. Speich:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1969, vol. 245, pp. 2553–64.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. M.K. Miller, P.A. Beaven, and G.D.W. Smith:Metall. Trans. A, 1981, vol. 12A, pp. 1197–204.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Olson, G.B., Cohen, M. Early stages of aging and tempering of ferrous martensites. Metall Mater Trans A 14, 1057–1065 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02670444

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02670444

Keywords

  • Austenite
  • Martensite
  • Metallurgical Transaction
  • Carbon Cluster
  • Resistivity Curve