• Proceedings of the AOCS Short Course on Industrial Fatty Acids, held June 10–13, 1979, Taminent, PA
  • Published:

Fat splitting

Abstract

Fat splitting, particularly the continuous, high pressure, countercurrent hydrolysis of fats and oils, typified by the Colgate-Emery or modified processes, represents the technological cornerstone for today’s American fatty acid industry. Internationally, other methods such as Twitchell or batch autoclave “medium-pressure” catalyzed or uncatalyzed splitting are still important. All industrial fat splitting methods have as their objectives the attainment of a high rate of hydrolysis together with a high degree of completeness. This objective is achieved, more or less, by the proper optimum balance of: (a) use of excess water; (b) selection of appropriate combination of temperature and pressure to optimize the solubility of liquid water in the fat phases with or without use of suitable “water-in-oil” emulsifiers; (c) use or nonuse of acidic catalyst (rarely basic catalysts); and (d) removal of byproduct glycerol. Significant conditions and details in fat splitting by the important commercial processes are described.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Lascaray, L., Seifensieder-Ztg., 6:122 (1937); Fette, Anstrichsm. 46:628 (1939).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sturzenegger, A., and H. Sturm, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43:510 (1951).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Mueller, H.H., and E.K. Holt, JAOCS 25:306 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Mills, V., and H.K. McClain, Ind. Eng. Chem. 41:1982 (1949).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ackelsberg, O.J., JAOCS 35:635 (1958).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Twitchell, E., U.S. Pat. 601,603, 1898; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 22:22 (1900).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Cox, C.B., Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. (London), 27:123 (1949).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hartman, L., JAOCS 30:349 (1953).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kallyanpur, M.R., V.V.R. Subramanyam, and J.G. Kane, Indian J. Technol. 5(1):20 (1967).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tilgman, R.A., British Pat. 47, January 9, 1854.

  11. 11.

    Lunde, K.E., (to Carad Corp.) U.S. Pat. 3,253,007, May 24, 1966.

  12. 12.

    Ittner, M.H., (to Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co.) U.S. Pat. 2,139,589, December 6, 1938; W. Davey and M.H. Ittner (to Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co.) U.S. Pat. 2,281,534, April 28, 1942.

  13. 13.

    Mills, V., (to Procter & Gamble Co.) U.S. Pat. 2,156,863, May 2, 1939.

  14. 14.

    Connstein, W., E. Hoyer, and H. Wartenberg, Ber. 35:3988 (1902).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Desnuelle, P., and P. Savary, J. Lipid Res. 4:369 (1963); Kates, M., Lipid Metabolism, Chp. 5, Edited by K. Bloch, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1960; Coleman, M.H. Advances in Lipid Research, Vol. 1, Academic Press, 1963, p. 2.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Coleman, M.H., JAOCS 40:568 (1963).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Luddy, F.E., R.A. Barford, S.F. Herb, P. Magidman, and R.W. Riemenschneider, JAOCS 41:693 (1964).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Krewson, C.F., J.S. Ard, and R.W. Riemenschneider, JAOCS 39:334 (1962).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sampugna, J., R.G. Jensen, R.M. Perry, Jr., and C.F. Krewson, JAOCS 41:132 (1964).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

General References

  1. 20.

    Sonntag, N.O.V., in “Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products,” 4th Ed., Chapter 19, Vol. 2 Edited by D. Swern, John Wiley, New York, (In press).

  2. 21.

    Ackelsberg, O.J., JAOCS 35:635 (1958).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 22.

    Lawrence, E.A., Ibid. 31:542 (1954).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 23.

    Muckerheide, V.J., Ibid. 29:490 (1952).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 24.

    Reinish, M.D., Ibid. 33:516 (1956).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

About this article

Cite this article

Sonntag, N.O.V. Fat splitting. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56, 729A–732A (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02667430

Download citation

Keywords

  • Twitchell Reagent
  • Autoclave Splitting
  • High Pressure Splitting