Chemical and physical effects of processing fats and oils
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Soybean oil is processed for a variety of food uses, salad/cooking oil, margarine and shortening. Crude soybean oil is composed mainly of triglycerides but also contains measurable amounts of minor constituents that may have beneficial or detrimental effects on oil characteristics. The nature of these minor constituents, the role they play in oil stability or deterioration and their fate during processing are subjects of this review. Iodine value, fatty acid composition, solid fat index and congeal point are chemical and physical characteristics of oil that are affected by the hydrogenation process. Techniques and effects of degumming, alkali refining, bleaching, hydrogenation, winterization and deodorization are discussed. Utilization or disposal of by-products or wastes from each processing step is reviewed.