Biological evaluation of hydrogenated rapeseed oil

Abstract

A 91-day feeding study evaluated soybean oil, rapeseed oil, fully hydrogenated soybean oil, fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil, fully hydrogenated superglycerinated soybean oil and fully hydrogenated superglycerinated rapeseed oil at 7.5% of the diet in rats; a 16-wk feeding study evaluated soybean oil and the three rapeseed oils or fats at 15% of the diet. Each fat was fed to 40 rats as a mixture with soybean oil making up 20% of a semi-synthetic diet. No significant differences in body weight gains or diet-related pathology were seen in the 91-day study although the rats fed liquid rapeseed oil had slightly heavier hearts, kidneys and testes than the others. The rats fed the four fully hydrogenated fats ate more feed and had lower feed efficiencies than those fed oils but no differences were seen among the four hydrogenated fats. In the 16-wk feeding study, no pronounced pathology related to the diet was seen although the rats fed liquid rapeseed oil had a slightly higher incidence of histiocytic infiltration of cardiac muscle than the rats in the other groups. The female rats fed the three rapeseed oil fats gained significantly less weight and the females fed liquid rapeseed oil had enlarged hearts compared to the other groups. The absorbabilities of the six fats were measured in the 91-day study when fed as a mixture with soybean oil and as the sole source of dietary fat in a separate 15-day balance study. The four fully hydrogenated fats were poorly absorbed and the absorption of behenic acid from the two hydrogenated rapeseed oils was found to be 12% and 17% in the balance study and 8-40% in the feeding study. The adverse biological effects of unhydrogenated rapeseed oil containing erucic acid as reported in the literature do not occur with fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. In addition, the low absorbability of the fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is an added factor in its biological inertness.

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Nolew, G.A. Biological evaluation of hydrogenated rapeseed oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 58, 31–37 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02666051

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Keywords

  • Erucic Acid
  • Feed Consumption
  • Behenic Acid
  • Erucic Acid Content
  • Histiocytic Infiltration