Skip to main content

Phospholipid composition of lipid seed crystal isolates from ivory coast cocoa butter

Abstract

Seed crystals isolated from Ivory Coast cocoa butter were shown to differ in chemical and thermal characteristics from solidified Ivory Coast butter. Higher concentrations of complex lipids in the seed crystals have led to speculation on the role these polar molecules play in lipid crystallization events. Phospholipids separated from lipid seed crystal isolates were twelve-fold more concentrated than the original cocoa butter. Seed crystals contained 3.99% phospholipids while cocoa butter samples contained 0.34%. Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid were identified in cocoa butter with phosphatidylcholine (37.7%), phosphatidylglycerol (27.3%) and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (15.6%) being the major phospholipid constituents. Two phospholipids not previously reported in cocoa butter were identified as phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol based on co-migration of standards. Cocoa butter and its seed crystals contained the same phospholipid entities; however, individual phospholipids differed significantly in concentration. Phosphatidylethanolamine (30.4%) and phosphatidylcholine (30.2%) were the major phospholipids in seed crystal samples. Fatty acid composition of cocoa butter and seed crystal phospholipids were found to be similar, with the exception of myristic, stearic and oleic acids. Myristic acid was three-fold higher in phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine in the seed crystals, whereas stearic acid was significantly lower in the seed crystals when compared to the cocoa butter. Concentrations of oleic acid were twice as high in seed crystal phosphatidylethanol-amine and almost four times as high in seed crystal phosphatidylcholine than in corresponding cocoa butter samples. The possible role phospholipids play in seed crystal development and in crystallization events is discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Chaiseri, S., and P.S. Dimick,The Manufacturing Confectioner 67:115 (1987).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dimick, P.S., and D.M. Manning,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 64:1663 (1987).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Davis, T.R., and P.S. Dimick,Ibid. 66:1488 (1989).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Davis, T.R., and P.S. Dimick,Ibid. 66:1494 (1989).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Hirsch, J., and E.H. Abrens,J. Biol. Chem. 233:311 (1958).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Rouser, G., A.N. Siakotos and S. Fleischer,Lipids 1:85 (1966).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Dittmer, J.C., and R.L. Lester,J. Lipid Res. 5:126 (1964).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Christie, W.W.,Lipid Analysis, 2nd edn., Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Morrison, W.R.,Anal. Biochem. 7:218 (1964).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Parsons, J.G., P.G. Keeney and S. Patton,J. Food Sci. 34:497 (1969).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chapman, D., and W.E. Peel, inThe Aqueous Cytoplasm, edited by A.D. Keith, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1979, p. 137.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Small, D.M.,J. Lipid Res. 8:P551 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Keith, A.D., W. Snipes and D. Chapman,Biochem. 16:634 (1977).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Small, D.M.,The Physical Chemistry of Lipids, Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Manning, D.M., and P.S. Dimick,Food Microstructure 4:249 (1985).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jewell, G.G.,Proc. Penn. Manuf. Confectioners’ Assoc. 35:63 (1981).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Schlichter-Aronhime, J., and N. Garti, inCrystallization and Polymorphism of Fats and Fatty Acids, edited by N. Garti, and K. Sato, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1988, p. 363.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

About this article

Cite this article

Arruda, D.H., Dimick, P.S. Phospholipid composition of lipid seed crystal isolates from ivory coast cocoa butter. J Am Oil Chem Soc 68, 385–390 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02663754

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02663754

Key Words

  • Cocoa butter
  • Lipid crystallization
  • Phospholipids
  • Seed crystals