Skip to main content
Log in

Flavor evaluation of crude oil to predict the quality of soybean oil

  • Technical
  • Published:
Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society

Abstract

Reliable methods for evaluation of crude oils are needed to assist processing and to improve flavor quality of finished products. The quality of crude oils from soybeans of different sources and treatments was determined by sensory evaluation and by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of volatiles. Taste panelists were specially trained in using a new technique to evaluate crude oils by dilution and comparison with freshly deodorized oils. The flavor quality of crude oils from untempered soybeans was significantly poorer than that of oils from soybeans steam-tempered at 104 C for four min. Capillary GC analyses of total volatiles and hexanal correlated well with differences in flavor quality and stability. Crude oils extracted from soybeans damaged by storage at 45 C and 13% moisture received decreasing flavor scores with prolonged storage time. Similarlly, hexanal and total volatile contents increased with storage times. Commercial crude oils from several geographic locations showed a wide range in flavor scores. However, flavor scores of crude oils showed good agreement with flavor stabilities (decrease in flavor scores after storage at 60 C) of the corresponding oils after refining, bleaching, and deodorization. Therefore, the combined use, of sensory evaluations and GC-volatile analyses of crude oils can provide convenient, rapid, sensitive and reliable screening methods to assist in improving the quality of finished soybean oils by controlling soybean storage and processing.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Brekke, O.L., inHandbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, edited by D.R. Erickson, E.H. Pryde, O.L. Brekke, T.l. Mounts and R.A. Falb, American Sobyean Association, St. Louis, MO, and American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1980, pp. 378–381.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Mounts, T.L., and K. Warner,Ibid., 1980, pp. 245–266.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Warner, K., inFlavor Chemistry of Fats and Oils, edited by D.B. Min and T.H. Smouse, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1985, pp. 207–221.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Mustakas, G.C., W.J. Albrecht, J.E. McGhee, L.T. Black, G.N. Bookwalter and E.L. Griffin,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 46:623 (1969).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Penk, G., inProceedings of the 2nd ASA Symposium on Soybean Processing, (Antwerp., Netherlands) American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO, 1981, pp. 15–20.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Kock, M.,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60:198, (1983).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Rice, R.D., L.S. Wei, M.P. Steinberg and A.I. Nelson,Ibid. 58:578 (1981).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ong, J.T.L., inProceedings of the 2nd ASA Symposium on Soybean Processing, (Antwerp, Netherlands) American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO, 1981, pp. 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Robertson, J.A., W.H. Morrison and D. Burdick,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 50:443 (1973).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Frankel, E.N., A.M. Nash and J.M. Snyder,Ibid. 63:411 (1986).

    Google Scholar 

  11. List, G.R., C.D. Evans, W.F. Kwolek, K. Warner, B.K. Boundy and J.C. Cowan,Ibid. 51:17 (1974).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Evans, C.D., E.N. Frankel, P.M. Cooney and H.A. Moser,Ibid. 37:452 (1960).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. List, G.R., inHandbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, edited by D.R. Erickson, E.H. Pryde, O.L. Brekke, T.L. Mounts and R.A., Falb, American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO, and American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL, 1980, pp. 355–376.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Warner, K., and E.N. Frankel,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62:100 (1985).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Mounts, T.L., G.R. List and A.J. Heakin,Ibid. 56:883 (1979).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. List, G.R., C.D. Evans, K. Warner, R.E. Beal, W.F. Kwolek, L.T. Black and K.J. Moulton,Ibid. 54:8 (1977).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Warner, K., and E.C. Baker,Ibid. 61:1861 (1984).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Warner, K., T.L. Mounts, J.J. Rackis and W. Wolf,Cer. Chem. 60:102 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Official and Tentative Methods, of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, AOCS, Champaign, IL (1981).

  20. Serrato, A.G.,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58:157 (1981).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ong, T.L.,Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 82:169 (1980).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

About this article

Cite this article

Warner, K., Frankel, E.N. & Moulton, K.J. Flavor evaluation of crude oil to predict the quality of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65, 386–391 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02663083

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02663083

Keywords

Navigation