Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity-related constructs

Abstract

This review evaluates 11 masculinity ideology measures that examine attitudes toward men and masculinities and 6 instruments for other masculinity-related constructs. Four conclusions regarding the available measures and the future development of instrumentation in the area are drawn from the review. First, there is evidence that measures of gender orientation and measures of gender ideologies are independent, and have differential correlates. Instruments that attempt to determine gender orientation and masculinity ideology concurrently will have limited utility by virtue of not distinguishing between these two constructs. Second, there is also evidence that gender ideologies about men are distinct from, and have differential correlates than, gender ideologies about women and gender relations in general. Thus, measures intending to index attitudes toward masculinities should not include gender-comparative items. Third, measures of the gender-related conflicts or stresses of manhood are likely to predict males’ behavior more directly than measures of masculinity ideology. Finally, a number of the existing instruments measuring either masculinity ideology or personal experiences with masculinity standards direct attention too narrowly toward a single definition of masculinity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Allen, D. (1954). Anti-femininity in men.American Sociological Review, 19, 591–593.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, S. M. (1978). Sex-role typing as related to acceptance of self, acceptance of others, and discriminatory attitudes toward women.Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 410–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Archer, J. (1989). The relationship between gender-role measures: A review.British Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 173–184.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Archer, J. (1990). Gender-stereotypic traits are derived from gender roles: A reply to McCreary.British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 273–277.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Archer, J., & Rhodes, C. (1989). The relationship between gender-related traits and attitudes.British Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 149–157.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ashmore, R. D., Del Boca, F. K., & Wohlers, A. J. (1986). Gender stereotypes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Baca-Zinn, M. (1984, Summer). Chicano men and masculinity.Journal of Ethnic Studies, 10, 29–44.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barnett, R. C., & Baruch, G. K (1987). Determinants of fathers’ participation in family work.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 29–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Barrish, G., & Welch, M. R. (1980). Student religiosity and discriminatory attitudes toward women.Sociological Analysis, 41, 66–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Baruch, G. K, & Barnett, R. C. (1986). Fathers’ participation in family work and children’s sex-role attitudes.Child Development, 57, 1210–1223.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Beere, C. A. (1979).Women and women’s issues: A handbook of tests and measures. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Beere, C. A. (1990).Gender roles: A handbook of tests and measures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Belk, S. S., & Snell, W. E. (1988). Avoidance strategy use in intimate relationships.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 80–96.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bem, S. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 165–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Biggs, P., & Fiebert, M. S. (1984). A factor-analytic study of American male attitudes.Journal of Psychology, 116, 113–116.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Brannon, R. (1976). The male sex role: Our culture’s blueprint for manhood, what it’s done for us lately. In D. David & R. Brannon (Eds.),The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Brannon, R. (1985). A scale for measuring attitudes toward masculinity. In A. Sargent (Ed.),Beyond sex roles (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Brannon, R., & Juni, S. (1984). A scale for measuring attitudes toward masculinity.Psychological Documents, 14, 6. (Ms. 2012.)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Brannon, R., Juni, S., & Grady, K (undated).A scale for measuring attitudes toward masculinity. Unpublished manuscript.

  20. Brinkerhoff, M. D., & MacKie, M. (1985). Religion and gender: A comparison of Canadian and American student attitudes.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 47, 415–429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Brod, H. (1987).The making of masculinities: The new men’s studies. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Broude, G. J. (1990). Protest masculinity: A further look at the cause and the concept.Ethos, 18, 103–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Buhrke, R. A. (1988). Factor dimensions across different measures of sex role ideology.Sex Roles, 18, 309–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Bunting, A. B., & Reeves, J. B. (1983). Perceived male sex orientation and beliefs about rape.Deviant Behavior, 4, 281–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Burda, P. C., & Vaux, A. C. (1987). The social support process in men: Overcoming sex-role obstacles.Human Relations, 40, 31–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Cazenave, N., & George, L. (1987). Men’s work and family roles and characteristics: Race, gender and class perceptions of college students. In M. Kimmel (Ed.),Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Connell, R. (1987).Gender and power. Stanford, CA: University of Stanford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Davis, F. (1987). Antecedents and consequents of gender role conflict: An empirical validation of sex role strain analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.

  29. Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade’s research on gender.American Psychologist, 39, 105–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Deaux, K., Winston, W., Crowley, M., & Lewis, L. L. (1985). Level of categorization and content of gender stereotypes.Social Cognition, 3, 145–167.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Del Boca, F. K, Ashmore, R. D., & McManus, M. A. (1986). Gender-related attitudes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Desnoyers, R. M. (1988).The role of religiosity in male sex role attitudes. Unpublished honor’s thesis, Holy Cross College, Worcester, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Downs, A. C., & Engleson, S. A. (1982). The attitudes toward men scale (AMS): An analysis of the role and status of men and masculinity.JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 12, 45. (Ms. 2502.)

    Google Scholar 

  34. Doyle, J. A., & Moore, R. J. (1978). Attitudes toward the male role scale: An objective instrument to measure attitudes towards the male’s sex role in contemporary society.JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 35–36. (Ms. 1678,)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Eagly, A. H., & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 543–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Eagly, A. H., Mladinic, A., & Otto, S. (1991). Are women evaluated more favorably than men?Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 203–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Eisler, R. M., & Blalock, J. A. (1991). Masculine gender role stress: Implications for the assessment of men.Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 45–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Eisler, R. M., & Skidmore, J. R. (1987). Masculine gender role stress: Scale development and component factors in the appraisal of stressful situations.Behavior Modification, 11, 123–136.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Eisler, R. M., Skidmore, J. R., & Ward, C. H. (1988). Masculine gender-role stress: Predictor of anger, anxiety, and health-risk behaviors.Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 133–141.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Exner, T. (1985).Hypermasculinity and male contraceptive attitude and behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut.

  41. Falkenberg, S. D., Hindman, C. D., & Masey, D. (1983).Measuring attitudes toward males in society. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 233 287.)

  42. Fiebert, M. S. (1983). Measuring traditional and liberal males’ attitudes.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 83–86.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Fiebert, M. S., & Vera, W. (1985). Test-retest reliability of a male sex-role attitude survey: The traditional-liberated content scale.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 66.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Franklin, C. W. (1988).Men and society. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Gackenbach, J. I., & Auerbach, S. M. (1985). Sex-role attitudes and perceptual learning.Journal of Social Psychology, 125, 233–243.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Gayton, W. F., Sawyer, B. L., Baird J. G., & Ozmon, K. L. (1982). Further validation of a new measure of machismo.Psychological Reports, 51, 820–822.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gilmore, D. L. (1990).Manhood in the making: Cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven, CT. Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Glass, L. L. (1984). Man’s man/ladies’ man: Motifs of hypermasculinity.Psychiatry, 47, 260–278.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Good, G. E., & Mintz, L. B. (1990). Gender role conflict and depression in college men: Evidence from compounded risk.Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 17–20.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Thompson, E.H., Pleck, J.H. & Ferrera, D.L. Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity-related constructs. Sex Roles 27, 573–607 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02651094

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gender Relation
  • Gender Ideology
  • Gender Orientation
  • Gender Attitude
  • Male Role