A kinematics-uplift model for the Himalayan-Tibetan region
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The Lhasa-Gangdise Terrane is taken as a representative mobile terrane during the Himalayan orogeny of the India-Eurasia continental collision, for which a corresponding kinematics-uplift model is set up. The parameterization of the model is ultimately constrained by the uplift history outlined by synthesized paleogeographic studies with consideration of the following factors: (1) kinematic features of India-Eurasia plate convergence; (2) 3-D mass conservation during terrane deformations incorporating shortening, thickening, extension, uplift and erosion; and (3) instantaneous vertical movement of lithospheric material under the control of isostasy. The model study involves the following four groups of uplift-relevant parameters: 1 plate converging velocity and its variations with time; 2 extent of lateral mass transfer; 3 crustal structure; and 4 surface erosion mode. The results of calculation of 144 models of different parameter combinations have indicated the non-uniqueness of solution. Nevertheless, it is also proved that for a fixed kinematic mode of plate convergence there exists a unique best-fitting model which may reproduce the observed uplift history, implying the uniqueness of dynamic environment of two converging plates. Therefore, the uplift of the Himalayan-Tibetan region is mainly controlled by plate dynamics-kinematics and is a complicated geological process of far-reaching implications.
Key wordsHimalayan-Tibetan region plate convergence terrane deformations kinematics-uplift model
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