A debate on the bainite reaction

Abstract

The authors debate three topics central to the controversies which have enveloped the bainite reaction ever since it was first recognized as a distinctive mode of austenite decomposition. These include: “what is bainite?”, “the growth mechanism of the ferritic component of bainite”, and “the sources of bainitic carbide precipitation.” RFH concludes that bainite is the product of a shear transformation. Individual bainite plates are suggested to grow substantially more rapidly than volume diffusion-control allows, but a constraint such as the build-up of volume strain energy limits the extent of their growth. This mechanism of growth ensures extensive supersaturation of bainitic ferrite with respect to carbon. Whether or not carbides precipitate in association with bainite plates and whether the carbide is cementite orε, however, is a complex question in competitive reaction kinetics. New experimental evidence is presented to demonstrate thatε carbide precipitated in lower bainite dissolves upon heating above the kinetic-B stemperature in an alloy steel containing 1.5 pct Si. This result is taken to support the existence of the metastable eutectoid reactionγ ⇌ α + ε atca 350°C. HIA and KRK define bainite as the product of a nonlamellar eutectoid reaction. On this view, carbide precipitation thus plays an essential, rather than an ancillary role. Development of the Widmanstatten morphology by the ferritic component of bainite is shown to be inessential to the classification of a eutectoid structure as bainite. When this morphology is present, however, it is concluded to grow by the ledge mechanism, without the participation of shear, at rates of the order of or less than those allowed by volume diffusion-control. New experimental evidence is presented to show that the lengthening and thickening kinetics of individual plates within sheaves of upper bainite are consistent with this description. The results of a new calculation indicate that the initial carbon content of bainite plates lies between theα/α + Fe3C) and the extrapolatedα/(α+ γ) phase boundaries, in agreement with expectation from the ledge mechanism of growth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    E. S. Davenport and E. C. Bain:Trans. AIME, 1930, vol. 90, p. 117.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    H. I. Aaronson:Inst. Metals, Monogr. 33, 1969, p. 270.

  3. 3.

    R. F. Mehl:Hardenability of Alloy Steels, ASM, 1939, p. 1.

  4. 4.

    A. Hultgren:Trans. ASM, 1947, vol. 39, p. 915.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    D. N. Shackleton and P. M. Kelly:Iron Steel Inst., London, Spec. Rep. 93, 1965, p. 126.

  6. 6.

    K. Shimizu and Z. Nishiyama:Mem. Inst, Sci. Ind. Res., Osaka Unit., 1963, vol. 20, p. 43.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. Ko and S. A. Cottrell:J Iron Steel Inst., 1952, vol. 172, p. 307.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    K. Tsuya:J. Mech. Lab., Japan, 1956, vol. 2, p. 20.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    G. R Speich and M. Cohen:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1960, vol. 218, p. 1050.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R. H. Goodenow, S. J. Matas, and R. F. Hehemann:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1963, vol. 227, p. 651.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    G. R. Srinivasan and C. M. Wayman:ActaMet, 1968, vol. 16, p. 621.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. W. Christian:The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Pergamon Press, New York, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    L. Kaufman, S. V. Radcliffe, and M. Cohen:Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 313, Interscience, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    A. P. Miodownik,J. Inst. Metals, 1954–55, vol. 83, p. 561.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    T. Lyman and A. R. Tioiano:Trans. AIME, 1945, vol. 162, p. 196.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    M. Cohenet al.:Perspectives in Materials Research, NAS-NRC for ONR, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1963, p. 309.

  17. 17.

    J.M. Robertson:J. Iron Steel Inst, 1929,vol. 119, p, 391.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A. Hultgren:Jernkontorets Ann., 1951, vol. 135, p. 403;Kgl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl, 1953, vol. 4, Ser. 4.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    F. Wever and E. Lange:Mitt. Kaiser Wilhelm Inst. Eisenforsch., 1932, vol. 14, p. 71.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    K. R. Kinsman and H. I. Aaronson:Transformation and Hardenability in Steels, p. 39, Climax Molybdenum Company, Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    P. Boswell: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., K. R. Kinsman and H. I. Aaronson, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1970.

  22. 22.

    T. Ko:J. Iron Steel Inst, 1953, vol. 175, p. 16.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    C. A. Dubé, H. I. Aaronson, and R. F. Mehl:Rev. Met, (Paris), 1958, vol. 55, p. 201.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    H. I. Aaronson and K. R. Kinsman: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., and P. Boswell: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., unpublished research, 1970.

  25. 25.

    T. Lyman and A. R. Troiano:Trans. ASM, 1946, vol. 37, p. 402.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    J. S. Bowles and J. K. Mackenzie:ActaMet, 1954, vol. 2, pp. 129, 138, 224.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    M. S. Wechsler, D. S. Lieberman, and T. A. Read:Trans. AIME, 1953, vol. 194, p. 1503.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    J. W. Christian:Decomposition ofAustenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 371, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    H. M. Clark and C. M. Wayman:Phase Transformations, p. 59, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1970.

  30. 30.

    J. M. Oblak, R. H. Goodenow, and R. F. Hehemann:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. 230, p. 258.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    E. Eichen, H. I. Aaronson, G. M. Pound, and R. Trivedi:ActaMet, 1966, vol. 14, p. 1637.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    K. R. Kinsman, E. Eichen, and H. I. Aaronson: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1971.

  33. 33.

    G. R. Speich,Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 353, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    R. D. Garwood:Iron Steel Inst., London, Spec. Rep. No. 93, 1965, p. 90.

  35. 35.

    P. E. Repas and R. F. Hehemann: Tech. Rep. No. 6 to ONR, ContractNonr 1141(15), June, 1967.

  36. 36.

    G. R. Purdy:Met. Sci. J., 1971, vol. 5, p. 81.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    P. E. J. Flewitt and J. M. T owner,J Inst. Metals, 1967, vol. 95, p. 273.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    H. I. Aaronson, C. Laird, and K. R. Kinsman:Phase Transformations, p. 313, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    M. Hillert:Jernkontorets Ann., 1957, vol. 141, p. 757.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    M. Hillert:Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 197, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    B. N. Bose and M. F. Hawkes:Trans. AIME, 1950, vol. 188, p. 307.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    H. I. Aaronson, W. B. Triplett, and G. M. Andes:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1960, vol. 209, p. 331.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    C. W. Spencer and D. J. Mack:Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 549, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    R. H. Goodenow and R. F. Hehemann:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1965, vol. 233, p. 1777.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    M. M. Rao and P. G. Winchell:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1967, vol. 239, p. 956.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    E. A. Wilson,ScriptaMet, 1970, vol. 4, p. 309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    E. L. F. Weisner and E. Hornbogen:ScriptaMet, 1969, vol. 3, p. 243.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    S. Bhattacharyya and G. L. Kehl:Trans. ASM, 1955, vol. 47, p. 351.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    J. M. Oblak and R. F. Hehemann:Transformation and Hardenability in Steel, p. 15, Climax Molybdenum Company, Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    R. H. Goodenow and R. F. Hehemann: Discussion inDecomposition of Austenite by DiffusionalProcesses, p. 367, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    R. H. Goodenow, R. H. Barkalow, and R. F. Hehemann:Physical Properties of Martensite and Bainite, p. 135, Spec. Rep. No. 93, The Iron and Steel Institute (London), 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    R. H. Goodenow: M. S. Thesis, Case Institute of Technology, 1962.

  53. 53.

    R. F. Hehemann:Phase Transformations, p. 397, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    M. Lange and K. Mathieu:Mitt. Kaiser Wilhelm Inst. Eisenforsch., 1938, vol. 20, p. 125.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    J. P. Sheehan, C. A. Julien, and A. R. Troiano:Trans. ASM, 1949, vol. 41, p. 1165.

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    A. B. Greninger and A. R. Troiano:Trans.AIME, 1940, vol. 140, p. 311.

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    J. R. Vilella:Trans. AIME, 1940, vol. 140, p. 332.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    W. Jellinghaus:Arch. Eisenhüttenw., 1957, vol. 28, p. 469.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    T. G. Nilan:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1967, vol. 239, p. 898.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    T. G. Nilan:Transformation and Hardenability in Steels, p. 57, Climax Molybdenum Company, Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    H. I. Aaronson:Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 387, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    H. I. Aaronson: Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1954.

  63. 63.

    J. M. Chilton and G. R. Speich:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, p. 1019.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    L. J. Habraken:C. R., Rech. Trav. Cen. Nat. Rech. Met., No. 19, 1957.

  65. 65.

    L. J. Habraken and M. Economopoulos:Transformation and Hardenability in Steels, p. 69, Climax Molybdenum Company, Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    H. I. Aaronson and C. Wells:Tram. AIME, 1955, vol. 203, p. 1002.

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    A. T. Davenport, F. G. Berry, and R. W. K. Honeycombe:Met. Sci. J., 1968, vol. 2, p. 104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    R. Le Houllier, G. Begin and A. Dubé:Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, p. 2645.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    S. J. Matas and R. F. Hehemann:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1961, vol. 221, p. 176.

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    F.|G. Berry, A. T. Davenport, and R. W. K. Honeycombe:Inst. Metals, Monog. No. 33, 1969, p. 288.

  71. 71.

    H. B. Aaron and H. I. Aaronson:Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, p. 23.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    F. B. Pickering:Transformations and Hardenability in Steels, p. 109, Climax Molybdenum Company, Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    H. I. Aaronson and C. Wells:Trans. AIME, 1956, vol. 206, p. 1216.

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    R. Trivedi:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, p. 921.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    G. R. Purdy, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, private communication, 1971.

  76. 76.

    F. J. Schoen and W. S. Owen:Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, p. 2431.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    M. Hillert: unpublished research quoted in ref. 13.

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    R. D. Townsend and J. S. Kirkaldy:Trans. ASM, 1968, vol. 61, p. 605.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    E. P. Simonen and R. Trivedi: Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, and H. I. Aaronson: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1970.

  80. 80.

    K. R. Kinsman and H. I. Aaronson:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, p. 1485.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    G. J. Jones and R. Trivedi:J. Appl. Phys., in press.

  82. 82.

    W. L. Grube and S. R. Rouze:High Temperature-High Resolution Metallography, p. 313, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    S. R. Rouze and W. L. Grube: General Motors Corp., Warren, Mich., private communication, 1971.

  84. 84.

    H. I. Aaronson, H. A. Domian, and G. M. Pound:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, p. 768.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    J. W. Cahn, W. B. Hillig, and G. W. Sears:ActaMet, 1964, vol. 12, p. 1421.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    J. S. Bowles and N. F. Kennon:J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1960, vol. 5, p. 106.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    N. F. Kennon and R. H. Edwards:J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1970, vol. 15, p. 195.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    S. K. Das and G. Thomas:Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, p. 659.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    A. R. Marder and G. Krauss:Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, p. 957.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    K. H. Eckelmeyer and G. Krauss: Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pa., unpublished research, 1967.

  91. 91.

    Y. C. Liu and H. I. Aaronson:ActaMet., 1970, vol. 18, p. 845.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    C. Laird and H. I. Aaronson:ActaMet., 1969, vol. 17, p. 505.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    M. F. Smith, G. R. Speich, and M. Cohen:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1959, vol. 215, p. 528.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    R. T. Howard and M. Cohen:Trans. AIME, 1948, vol. 176, p. 384.

    Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    R. F. Bunshah and R. F. Mehl:Trans. AIME, 1953, vol. 197, p. 1251.

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    L. Kaufman and M. Cohen:Progr. Metal Phys., 1958, vol. 7, p. 165.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    J. W. Christian:Proc. Roy. Soc, 1951, vol. A206,p. 51.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    A. Schrader and F. Wever:Arch. Eisenhüttenw., 1952, vol. 23, p. 489.

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    R. I. Entin:Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, p. 295, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    F. Wever and K. Mathieu:Mitt. Kaiser Wilhelm Inst. Eisenforsch., 1940, vol. 22, p. 9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    E. P. Klier and T. Lyman:Trans. AIME, 1944, vol. 158. p. 394.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    A.S.T.M. Committee E-4:Trans. ASTM, 1950, vol. 50, p. 444, 1952, vol. 52, p. 543;Trans. ASTM, 1954, vol. 54, p. 568.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    J. Deliry:Mem. Sci. Rev. Met, 1965, vol. 62, p. 527.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    W. Richardson: M. S. Thesis, Case-Western Reserve University, 1971.

  105. 105.

    H. Modin and S. Modin:Jernkontorets Ann., 1955, vol. 139, p. 481.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    S. M. Kaufman, G. M. Pound, and H. I. Aaronson:Trans. AIME, 1957, vol. 209, p. 855.

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    E. S. Davenport:Trans. ASM, 1939, vol. 27, p. 837.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    J. R. Cruciger and J. R. Vilella:Trans. ASM, 1944, vol. 32, p. 195.

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    A. Hultgren:Trans. ASM, 1947, vol. 39, p. 915.

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    D. N. Shackleton and P. M.Kelly:ActaMet., 1967, vol. 15,p. 979.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    N. P. Allen, L. B. Pfeil, and W. T. Griffiths:Iron Steel Inst, 1939, Spec. Rep. 24, p. 369.

  112. 112.

    P. Vasudevan, L. W. Graham, and H. J. Axon:J. Iron Steel Inst, 1958, vol. 190, p. 386.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    L. P. Ivanova and A. G. Seleznev:Trudy Khar’kov. Politekh. Inst. V. I, Lenina, 1959, vol. 21, p. 23.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    S. V. Radcliffe and E. C. Rollason:J Iron Steel Inst, 1959, vol. 191, p. 56.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    A. Rose:Haerterei-Tech. Mitt, 1950, vol. 5, p. 44.

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    A. Rose and W. Peter:Stahl Eisen, 1952, vol. 72, p. 1063.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    F. E. Werner, B. L. Averbach, and M. Cohen:Trans. AIME, 1956, vol. 206, p. 1484.

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    G. V. Kurdjumov and M. D. Perkas:Prob, in Phys. of Metallography and Phys. Met., 1951, vol. 2, p. 167.

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    K. R. Kinsman, E. Eichen, and H. I. Aaronson:Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, p. 346.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    M. G. Hall, K. R. Kinsman, and H. I. Aaronson:J. Iron Steel Inst, in press.

  121. 121.

    H. I. Aaronson and K. R. Kinsman: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1971.

  122. 122.

    H. Jolivet and A. Portevin:Compt. Rend., 1939, vol. 209, p. 556.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    E. P. Klier and A. R. Troiano:Trans. AIME, 1945, vol. 162, p. 175.

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    F. Wever, A. Rose, and W. Peter:Arch. Eisenhüttenw., 1950, vol. 21, p. 367.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    C. A. Dubé: Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1948.

  126. 126.

    C. Zener:J. Appl. Phys., 1949, vol. 20, p. 950.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    C. S. Roberts:Trans. AIME, 1953, vol. 197, p. 203.

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    H. I. Aaronson and H. A. Domian:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, p. 781.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    L. M. Pevzner, T. D. Kubyushina, G. M. Rovenskii and A. I. Samoilov:Soviet Metallography and Treatment of Metals, 1956, no. 11, p. 2.

  130. 130.

    M. G. Hall, H. I. Aaronson, and K. R. Kinsman:Surface Sci, in press.

  131. 131.

    K. R. Kinsman and H. I. Aaronson: Discussion to Oblak and Heheman,Transformation and Hardenability in Steels, p. 33, Climax Molybdenum Co., Ann Arbor, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    J. C. Fisher:Thermodynamics in Physical Metallurgy, p. 201, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1950.

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    J. A. Klosterman: Inst. Metals, Monogr. 33, 1969, p. 143.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

H. I. AARONSON, formerly with Ford Motor Company

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hehemann, R.F., Kinsman, K.R. & Aaronson, H.I. A debate on the bainite reaction. MT 3, 1077–1094 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02642439

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ferrite
  • Austenite
  • Martensite
  • Cementite
  • Bainite