Skip to main content

Wadi natural aggregates in Western Saudi Arabia for use in Concrete

Utilisation de granulats naturels d’oueds pour la fabrication de bétons (Ouest de l’Arabie Saoudite)

Abstract

The engineering properties (physical and mechanical) of Wadi Al-Yamanyah natural aggregate were determined. In addition, correlations between these properties have been made. This Wadi is located in the central part of the western province of Saudi Arabia between Makkah and Taif. The aggregate along the Wadi was studied and five major rock units were identified namely granite, granodiorite, gneiss amphibole schist and andesite. These rocks were classified into three aggregate groups: basalt, granite and schist.

Ninety aggregate samples were carefully collected and tested. The results of overall aggregate properties pointed out that Wadi Al-Yamanyah natural mixed aggregate is within the international and local specification limits and it is suitable for use in concrete. The estimated volume of natural aggregate in the Wadi is about 2 million m3.

The engineering properties of individual aggregate groups were also determined. Basalt and schist groups, which represent about 65% of the Wadi natural aggregate, were of higher quality and low degree of alterations than the granite group.

Direct and inverse relationships were found between some physical and mechanical properties for mixed natural aggregate of Wadi Al-Yamanyah with the exception of elongation index (IE). It is recommended to use the derived equations, representing the best fit between the aggregate properties, with care and for rough estimation only.

Résumé

L’étude porte sur les propriétés géotechniques des granulats naturels extraits de l’oued Al-Yamanyah, et essaie d’établir quelques corrélations entre ces propriétés. Cet oued est situé dans la partie centrale de la provence occidentale de l’Arabie Saoudite, entre Makkah et Taïf. Cinq espèces pétrographiques principales ont été identifiées dans les granulats: granite, granodiorite, gneiss, schiste amphibolique et andésite. Elles ont été regroupées en trois entités: basalte, granite, schiste.

Les essais ont été réalisés sur 90 échantillons et ont montré que globalement les granulats de cet oued convenaient pour la fabrication des bétons, le volume estimé des réserves étant d’environ 2 millions de mètres cubes.

Les caractéristiques des trois entités ont été également étudiées séparément: l’ensemble «basalte-schistes» qui représente 65% du total des alluvions est de meileure qualité et moins altéré que l’ensemble «granite».

Des essais de corrélation ont également été réalisés, qu’il ne faut utiliser qu’avec prudence et seulement pour des estimations grossières.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • AL-EDEENAN, SHEHATA W. and SABTAN A., 1994: Effect of Petrography on engineering properties of coarse aggregates, Wadi Millah, Saudi Arabia. Proc. 7th International Congress, International Association of Engineering Geology, Lishon, Portugal, pp. 3165–3170.

    Google Scholar 

  • AL-MEZGAGI H.A., KHIYAMI H.A., SABTAN A.A. and GHAZAL M.M., 1994: Effect of particle shape on the strength of concrete. Proc. 7th International Congress, Internation Association of Engineering Geology, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 3171–3174.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM, 1978: Significance of tests and properties of concrete making materials. ASTM STP 169B.

  • American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM, 1983: Test for soundness of aggregates by use of sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate. ASTM C 88-83.

  • American Society for Testing Materials, 1985: Standard practice for petrographic examination of aggregates for concrete. Philadelphia, USA, ASTM C 295-85.

  • American Society for Testing Materials, 1986: Standard specifications for concrete aggregates. ASTM Designation C33.

  • American Society for Testing Materials, 1989: Resistance to abrasion of small-size coarse aggregate by use of the Los Angeles machine. ASTM C 131-89.

  • BLOEM D.L. and GAYNOR R.D., 1963: Effects of aggregate properties on strength concrete. J. of the American Concrete Institute 60, (10), 1429–1455.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Standards Institution, BS 812: 1975: Methods, for sampling and testing of mineral aggregates and fillers.

  • British Standards Institution, BS 812: Part 105.1: 1989: Methods for determination of particle shape: Flakness index.

  • British Standards Institution, BS 812: Part 105.2: 1990: Methods for determination of particle shape: Elongation index of coarse aggragate.

  • BROWN G.F. and JACKSON R.O., 1978: An overview of the geology of western Arabia. DGMR, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

  • COLLIS L. and FOX R.A., 1985: Aggregates: Sand, Gravel and Crushed Rocks Aggregates for Construction Purposes. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publication 1.

  • DHIR R.K., RAMSAY D.M. and BALFOUR N., 1971: A study of the aggregate impact and crushing value tests. J. Inst. of Highway Engineers, 18: 17–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • FOOKES P.G., 1980: An introduction to the influence of natural aggregates on the performance and durability of concrete. Q.J. Eng. Geol., London, 13 (4) 207–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • FOOKES P.G. and HIGGINBOTTOM I.E., 1980: Some problems of construction aggregates in desert areas, with particular reference to the Arabian Peninsula. 2: Investigation, production and quality control. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs 68: 69–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • GHOSH D.K., 1980: Relationship between petrological, chemical and geomechanical properties of Deccan basalts, India. IAEG Bull. 22: 287–292.

    Google Scholar 

  • GOSWAMI S.C., 1984: Influence of geological factors on soundness and abrasion resistance of road surface aggregates — A case study. IAEG Bull., 30: 59–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • HAMMERSLEY G.P., 1989: The use of petrography in the evaluation of aggregates. Concrete, 23 (10).

  • HARALDSSON H., 1984: Relations between petrography and the aggregate properties of Icelandic rocks. IAEG Bull. 30: 73–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • HARTLEY A., 1970: The influence of geological factors upon the mechanical properties of road surfcing aggregates (with particular reference to Bristish conditions and practice). Proc. 21st Symp. Highway Geological, University of Kansas.

  • HARTLEY A., 1974: A review of the geological factors influencing the mechanical properties of road surface aggregate. Q.J. Eng. Geol. 7: 69–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IRFAN T.Y., 1994: Aggregate properties and resources of granitic rocks for use in concrete in Hong King. Q.J. of Engin Geol., 27: 25–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • KAZI A. and AL-MANSOUR Z.R., 1980: Influence of geological factors on abrasion and soundness characteristics of aggregate. Engng. Geol. 15: 195–203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • KNILL D.C., 1978: Aggregates, sand, gravel and constructional stone. Industrial Geology (Edit, Knill, J.L.), 166–195. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • LEES G. and KENNEDY C.K., 1975: Quality, shape and degradation of aggregates, Q.J. Eng. Geol. 8: 193–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MURDOCK L.J. and BROOK K.M., 1979: Concrete materials and practice. 5th Edition, Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • MOORE T.A. and AL-REHAILI M.H., 1989: Geological map of the Makkah Quadrangle, Sheet 21D. Directorate General of Mineral Resofurces, MPMR, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

  • NEVILLE A.M., 1981: Properties of concrete. 3rd Edition, Pitman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • ORCHARD D.F., 1976: Concrete technology, properties and testing of aggregates. Vol. 3, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • RAMSAY D.M., 1965: Factors influencing aggregate impact value in rock aggregate. Quarry Managers Journal, London, 49: 129–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • RAMSAY D.M., DHIR R.K. and SPENCE J.M., 1977: The practical and theoretical merits of the aggregate impact value in the study of crushed rock aggregate. Proc. Conf. on Rock Engineering, Newcastle — Upon — Tyne, U.K.

  • SABINE P.A., MOREY J.E. and SHERGOLD F.A., 1954: The correlation of the mechanical properties and petrography of a sines of quartz dolerite roadstones. Journal Appl. Chem. 4: 131–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • SMITH M.R. and COLLIS L., 1993: Aggregates: Sand, Gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes, 2nd Ed., Geological Society, Engineering Geology, Special Publication No. 9, London, 339 p.

  • TURK N. and DEARMAN W.R., 1988: An investigation into the influence of size on the mechanical properties of aggregate. IAEG Bull. 38: 143–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • TURK N. and DEARMAN W.R., 1989: An investigation of the relations between ten percent fines load and crushing value of aggregates (U.K.), IAEG Bull. 39: 145–154.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Al Harthi, A.A., Abo Saada, Y.E. Wadi natural aggregates in Western Saudi Arabia for use in Concrete. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology 55, 27–37 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02635406

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02635406

Keywords

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Natural Aggregate
  • British Standard Institution
  • Aggregate Property
  • Mixed Aggregate