We have detected new clues to the composition and function of “Transfer Factor” using the direct Leucocyte Migration Inhibition (LMI) test as an in vitro assay of Dialysates of Leucocyte Extracts (DLE). This approach has revealed two opposing antigen-specific activities to be present in the same >3500 <12,000 DA dialysis fraction — one activity is possessed of Inducer/Helper function (Inducer Factor). The opposing activity is possessed of Suppressor function (Suppressor Factor).
When non-immune leucocyte populations are cultured with Inducer Factor they acquire the capacity to respond to specific antigen and inhibition of migration occurs. This conversion to reactivity is antigen- specific and dose-dependent. When immune leucocyte populations are cultured with Suppressor Factor their response to specific antigen is blocked and Inhibition of Migration is prevented.
KeywordsTransfer Factor Delay Type Hypersensitivity Diphtheria Toxoid Dialysis Fraction Leukocyte Migration Inhibition
dialysable leucocyte extracts
leucocyte migration inhibition test
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Lawrence HS: Transfer factor in cellular immunity. New York: Harvey Lectures Series 68. Academic Press 1974: 75–89.Google Scholar
- 3.Wilson GB & Fudenberg HH. Leukocyte migration inhibition as a method for assaying transfer factor activities. In: Pick E, Landy M, eds. Lymphokines. New York: Academic Press 1981; 4: 107–73.Google Scholar
- 7.Borkowsky W & Lawrence HS. Antigen-specific inducer factor in human leukocyte dialysates: A product of T-helper cells which binds to anti-V region and anti-Ia region antibodies. In: Kirkpatrick CW, Burger DR, Lawrence HS, eds. Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press 1983: 75–89.Google Scholar
- 8.Borkowsky W, Berger J, Pilson R & Lawrence HS. Antigen-specific suppressor factor in human leukocyte dialysates: A product of TS cells which binds to anti-V region and anti-Ia region antibodies. IDEM, 91–114.Google Scholar
- 9.Borkowsky W & Lawrence HS. Antigen-specific suppressor factor in human leukocyte dialysates suppresses in vivo foot-pad reactivity in immunized BALB/c mice. IDEM, 189–96.Google Scholar
- 10.Holzman RS, Borkowsky W, Pilson R & Lawrence HS. Isolation and purification of antigen-specific inducer and suppressor Factors from pooled leukocyte dialysates of unselected donors by affinity absorption. IDEM, 117–26.Google Scholar
- 11.Peterson EA, Greenberg LE, Manzara, T, Rozzo SJ, & Kirkpatrick CH. Selective removal of transfer factor activity with antigen. IDEM, 65–74.Google Scholar
- 12.Burger DR, Vandenbark AA & Vetto RM. Constraints in structural models for transfer factor. In: Auti F, Wigzell H, eds. Thymus, Thymic Hormones and T Lymphocytes. New York: Academic Press 1980: 431- 39.Google Scholar