Cytoplasmic mediation of malignancy

Editor's Statement This is the first description of cytoplasmic mediation of tumorigenesis. There is a clear indication that cytoplasmic elements play a role in the expression of the malignant phenotype.


The relative roles of nucleus and cytoplasm in the induction and maintenance of the malignant state were studied. Cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) clones, derived from the fusion of cytoplasts from malignantly transformed cells to normal whole cells, produced tumors in 17% of the animals injected with them. Nuclear/cytoplasmic hybrid (reconstituted cell) clones, derived by fusion of cytoplasts from malignant cells with karyoplasts of normal cells, produced tumors in 97% of the animals injected. A unique aspect of this study is the fact that all of the cells utilized, both normal and malignantly transformed, were derived from an original cloned cells

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Ozer, H. L. and K. K. Jha (1977) Adv. in Can. Res. 25:53.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Groce, C. M., Hueber, K., Girardi, A. J., and H. Koprowski (1974) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 39:335.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Borski, G., Blanchard, M. G., Youn, J. K., and B. Leon (1973) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 51:781.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Howell, A. N., and R. Sager (1978) Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:2238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Harris, H., Miller, O. J., Klein, G., Worst, P., and T. Tachibana (1969) Nature 223:363–368.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ziegler, M. L. (1978) Som. Cell Genet. 4:447–489.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Miller, R. A. and F. Ruddle (1976) Cell 9:44–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Howell, N., and R. Sager (1979) Som. Cell Gen. 5:129–143.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Klinger, H. P. (1980) Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 27:254–266.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Howell, A. N. and R. Sager (1978) Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. 75:2358–2362.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Koura, M., Isaka, H., Yoshida, M., Tosu, M. and T. Sekiguchi (1982) Gann 73:574–580.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shay, J. W., Peters, T. T., Fuseler, J. W. (1978) Cell 14:835.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Shay, J. W., and M. A. Clark (1979) J. Supramolecular Structure 11:33–49.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Halaban, R., Moellmann, G., Godawska, E. and J. Eisenstadt (1980) Exp. Cell Res. 130:427.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Weiss, M. C. and B. Ephrussi, (1966) Genetics, 54:1095.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Weiss, Mary C. and Howard Green, (1967) PNAS (USA), 58(3):1104–1111.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hayashi, J.-I., Gotoh, O., Tagashira, U., Tosu, M., and T. Sekiguchi (1980) FEBS Letters 117:59–62.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Hayashi, J.-I., Tagashiro, Y., Higashida, H., Hirai, S.-I., Yoshida, M. and T. Sekiguchi (1984) Exp. Cell Res. 154:357–366.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ziegler, M. L. and R. L. Davidson, (1981) Som. Cell Genet., 7(1):73–88.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Solus, J. F. and J. M. Eisenstadt (1984) Exp. Cell Res. 151:299–305.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Perry, R. P., Kelley, D. E., Schibler, U., Huebner, K., and C. M. Groce (1979). J. Cell Physiol. 98:553–560.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ajiro, K., Zweidler, A., Borum, T., and C. M. Groce (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:5599–5603.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Gaunt, S. J. and J. H. Subak-Sharpe (1979) Exp. Cell Res. 120:307–320.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Bausher, J. and W. I. Schaeffer (1974) In Vitro 9:286–293.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Schaeffer, W. I. (1980) In: Ca. Borek and G. M. Williams (eds.) Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 349:165–182.

  26. 26.

    Israel, B. A. and W. I. Schaeffer (1987) In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology, 23(9):627–632.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Clark, M. A., Crenshaw, A. H., and J. W. Shay (1978) Tissue Culture Assoc. Man. 4:801–804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Vindelov, L., Christensen, I. and N. Nissen (1983) Cytometry 3:328–331.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    DeMars, R. and K. Held (1972) 16:87–110.

  30. 30.

    Harris, M. (1975). J. Cell Physiol. 86:413–429.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wollgiehn, R. (1982) in L. Nover, M. Luckner, B. Parthier (eds.) Cell Differentiation: Molecular Basis and Problems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pgs. 529–548.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    McKinnell, R., B. A. Diggins and D. D. Labat (1969) Science 165:394–395.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Mintz, B. (1977) in L. Nover and K. Mothis (eds.) Cell Differentiation in Microorganisms, Plants and Animals G. Fischer Verlag, Jena, pgs. 351–360.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Maan, S. S. (1979) Wheat Inf. Ser. 50:71–79.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Kihara, H. and K. Tsunewaki (1962) Jap. J. Genet. 37:310–313.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Matzinger, D. F. and L. G. Burk (1984) J. Hered. 75:167–170.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Mathias, R. J., K. Fukui and C. N. Law (1986) Theor. Appl. Genet. 72:70–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Fischer Lindahl, K. and K. Burki, (1982) Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:5362–5366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Fischer Lindahl, K. and B. Hausmann, (1983) Genetics, 103:483–494.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Abken, H., H. Jungfer, W. H. W. Albert and K. Willecke, (1986) J. Cell Biol., 103:795–805.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Warren I. Schaeffer.

Additional information

This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant RO1-CA40206 from the National Institutes of Health. BAI was suported, in part, by a predoctoral fellowship from the American Association of University Women. This work is in partial fulfillment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for BAI.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Israel, B.A., Schaeffer, W.I. Cytoplasmic mediation of malignancy. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 24, 487–490 (1988).

Download citation


  • Parental Cell
  • Modal Number
  • Population Doubling
  • Malignant Phenotype
  • Early Passage