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Bulletin Volcanologique

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 345–360 | Cite as

The composition of basaltic lavas from Bayuda, Sudan and their place in the cainozoic volcanic history of north-east Africa

  • D. C. Almond
Article

Abstract

Six new analyses of young basaltic rocks from the Bayuda field show the predominant rock types to be strongly undersaturated basanites and nepheline trachybasalts. Both types are believed to represent magmas of deep-seated origin. Similar rocks are widely distributed in north-east Africa but mildly alkaline to tholeiitic basalts were erupted along the eastern margin of the continent in early and late Cainozoic times, whereas along the Tripoli-Tibesti zone to the west mildly alkaline basalts were probably confined to the early Tertiary. The Tripoli-Tibesti zone was one of uplift and strongly tensional tectonics in the late Mesozoic and early Cainozoic, and at this time may have been a line of potential lithospheric rifting, but a period of quiescence followed and resurgence of activity in the late Cainozoic produced weaker tensional structures and more strongly alkaline basic magmas. The region between these two main zones of activity was characterized throughout by intermittent alkaline volcanicity and weak tectonism. Neverthless, fracture zones which apparently controlled the volcanicity are beginning to be recognized in this area. It is argued that African volcanic activity is related to linear, rather than circumscribed, areas of mantle activity. Possible connections with epeirogenic movements within the Alpine orogenic belt appear to have been neglected in the debate on the causes of African igneous activity.

Keywords

Volcanic Rock Tephra Sudan Mantle Plume Volcanic Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Almond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of GeologyKingston PolytechnicKingston upon ThamesEngland

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