Bulletin Volcanologique

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 209–230 | Cite as

The quaternary caldera volcano emuruangogolak, kenya rift, and the petrology of a bimodal ferrobasalt-pantelleritic trachyte association

  • S. D. Weaver


Emuruangogolak is a Quaternary basalitrachyte volcano situated in the Suguta graben of the northern Kenva rift, and probably erupted last early in this century. Following the construction of an early trachytic shield volcano, two episodes of caldera collapse occurred. each preceded by explosive pvroclastic activity. Post-calelera volcanism consisted of alternating phases of basalt and trachyte eruption.

The basic lavas are high-Ti ferrobasalts of a mildly alkaline ‘transitional’ composition and the trachytes are peralkaline and oversaturated. A distinct compositional bimodality exists and no rocks in the range 49–59°. SiO, have been found. Major and trace element analyses suggest that the trachytes are genetically related to the basalts. Associations of almost identical lavas occur in Ethiopia. Pantelleria and the Azores but with the presence of intermediate terms Fractional crystallization is the mechanism currently preferred to account for the origin of the trachytes. The ‘Daly gap’ may be a consequence of a crystallization process which limits the volume of intermediate magma available at any time. In addition, the physical properties and spatial distribution of the different magmas probably discriminate against the cruption of lavas of intermediate composition.


Basalt Lava Fault Scarp Caldera Collapse Caldera Wall Basic Lava 
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Copyright information

© Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Weaver
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamU.K.

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