Bulletin Volcanologique

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 175–186 | Cite as

The Negros de Aras Nuée Ardente deposits: a cataclysmic eruption of Socompa volcano (Andes of Atacama, Chile)

  • B. Deruelle


Studies of ERT Satellite photographic documents and of acrial photographs with complementary lield work reveal the presence of recent very large nuée ardente deposits north-west of Socompa Volcano (Andean Cordillera of Atacama, northern Chile).

Three zones are distinguishable from the bottom of Socompa Volcano to the front of the nuée ardente deposits: 1) pumice blocks are covered with parallel ridges of debris (lava blocks) from the north-western flank of Socompa Volcano, 2) pumice blocks lie upon small cones and flows from El Negrillar volcanoes located inside the graben of Negros de Aras, 3) pumice flow threads its way between cones and flows from El Negrillar volcanoes and stops more than 40 km away from the base of Socompa Volcano.

The calculated thermal energy of this cruption is 7.9 × 1025 ergs, being in the range of of the most important recorded eruptions on earth.

The pumice is almost aphyric (rare plagioclase, hypersthene and hornblende phenocrysts) and is of dacite composition lying pertectly on the K2O-SiO2 trend of the Socompa Volcano. Trace and major element data of the pumice are similar to those of two dacites from a pre-nuée lava flow and a post-nuée lava dome of Socompa Volcano and support a common magmatic origin with the Socompa Volcano lavas.

A relative chronology is proposed.


Lava Flow Lava Dome Dextral Strike Slip Fault Andean Cordillera Lava Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Curtis, G. H., 1968,The Stratigraphy of the Ejecta from the 1912 Eruption of Mount Katmai and Novarupta, Alaska. Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 116, p. 153–210.Google Scholar
  2. Déruelle, B., 1977,Subduction et zonation du volcanisme Plio-Quaternaire des Andes du Sud (18″–55″ S), Rev. Géogr. phys. Géol. dyn.,19 (2), p. 179–187.Google Scholar
  3. —————, 1978,Calc-alkaline and Shoshonitic Lavas from Five Andean Volcanoes (between Latitudes 21″45′ and 24″30′ S) and the Distribution of the Plio-Quaternary Volcanism of the South-Central and Southern Andes. J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res.,3 (3–4), p. 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. —————, etGiret, A., 1978,Une vision synoptique des liaisons volcanostructurales dans la marge active andine: l’exemple de la région d’Atacama (Chili, 21–25″ S). Rev. Géogr. phys. Géol. dyn.,20 (3), p. 259–268.Google Scholar
  5. Ewart, A., 1967,Pyroxene and Magnetite Phenocrysts from the Taupo Quaternary Rhyolitic Pumice Deposits, New Zealand. Mineral. Mag.,36 (278), p. 180–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Francis, P. W., Roobol, M. J., Walker, G. P. L., Cobbold, P. R. andCoward, M.,The San Pedro and San Pablo Volcanoes of Northern Chile and Their Hot Avalanche Deposits. Geol. Rundsch.,63 (1), p. 357–388.Google Scholar
  7. Gorshkov, G. S., 1959,Gigantic Eruption of Volcano Bezymianny. Bull. Volcanol.,20, p. 77–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hédervári, P., 1963,On the Energy and Magnitude of Volcanic Eruptions. Bull. Volcanol.,25, p. 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lacroix, A., 1904,La Montagne Pelée et ses éruptions. Masson & Cie, Paris, 662 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Minakami, T., 1950,On Explosive Activities of Andesitic Volcanoes and Their Forerunning Phenomena. Bull. Volcanol.,10, p. 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nairn, I. A. andSelf, S., 1978,Explosive Eruptions and Pyroclastic Avalanches from Ngauruhoe in February 1975. J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res.,3 (1–2), p. 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Smith, R. L., 1960,Ash Flows. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.,71, p. 795–842.Google Scholar
  13. Taylor, S. R., 1969,Trace Element Chemistry of Andesites and Associated Calc-alkaline Rocks. In: A. R. McBirney (Editor),Proceedings Andesite Conference. Ore., Dep. Geol. Miner. Ind., Bull.,65, p. 43–63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Deruelle
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Pétrographie-Volcanologie, Département de GéologieUniversité de Paris XIOrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations