Advertisement

Bulletin Volcanologique

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 195–222 | Cite as

Lateral variation of basalt magma type across continental margins and Island Arcs

Première Partie Communications Lues Au « International Symposium On Volcanology » (Nouvelle-Zélande, Du 22 Nov. À 3 Déc. 1965)

Abstract

Quaternary basalt magmas in the Circum-Pacific belt and island arcs and also in Indonesia change continuously from less alkalic and more siliceous type (tholeiite) on the oceanic side to more alkalic and less siliceous type (alkali olivine basalt) on the continental side. In the northeastern part of the Japanese Islands and in Kamchatka, zones of tholeiite, high-alumina basalt, and alkali olivine basalt are arranged parallel to the Pacific coast in the order just named, whereas in the southwestern part of the Japanese Islands, the Aleutian Islands, northwestern United States, New Zealand, and Indonesia, zones of high-alumina basalt and alkali olivine basalt are arranged parallel to the coast. In the Izu-Mariana, Kurile, South Sandwich and Tonga Islands, where deep oceans are present on both sides of the island arcs, only a zone of tholeiite is represented. Thus the lateral variation of magma type is characteristic of the transitional zone between the oceanic and continental structures. Because the variation is continuous, the physico-chemical process attending basalt magma production should also change continuously from the oceanic to continental mantle. Suggested explanations for the lateral variation assuming a homogeneous mantle are: 1) Close correspondence between the variations of depth of earthquake foci in the mantle and of basalt magma type in the Japanese Islands indicates that different magmas are produced at different depths where the earthquakes are generated by stress release: tholeiite at depths around 100 km, high-alumina basalt at depths around 200 km, and alkali olivine basalt at depths greater than 250 km. 2) Primary olivine tholeiite magma is produced at a uniform level of the mantle (100–150 km), and on the oceanic side of the continental margin, it leaves the source region immediately after its production and forms magma reservoirs at shallow depths, perhaps in the crust, where it undergoes fractionation to produce SiO2-oversaturated tholeiite magma, whereas on the continental side, the primary magma forms reservoirs near the source region and stays there long enough to be fractionated to produce alkali olivine basalt magma, and in the intermediate zone, the primary magma forms reservoirs at intermediate depths where it is fractionated to produce high-alumina basalt magma.

Keywords

Basalt Magma Japanese Island Aleutian Island Primary Magma Olivine Basalt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. N. B.: (C.A.V. —Catalogue of Active Volcanoes of the World).Google Scholar
  2. Barth, T. F. W., 1956 —Geology and petrology of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Geol. Surv. Bull.,1028-F, 101–160.Google Scholar
  3. Byers, F. M., Jr., 1961 —Petrology of three volcanic suites, Umnak and Bogoslof Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol. Soc. America Bull.,72, 93–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Casertano, L., 1963 — C.A.V. Part. 15,Chilean Continent, 1–55.Google Scholar
  5. Coats, R. R., 1952 —Magmatic differentiation in Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks from Adak and Kanaga Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol. Soc. America Bull.,63, 485–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. —————, 1953 —Geology of Buldir Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol. Surv. Bull.,989-A, 1–26.Google Scholar
  7. —————, 1959 —Geologic reconnaissance of Semisopochnoi Island, Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol. Surv. Bull.,1028-O, 477–519.Google Scholar
  8. -----, 1962 —Magma type and crustal structure in the Aleutian are. Crust of the Pacific Basin. Geophysical Monograph No. 6, 92–109.Google Scholar
  9. —————, andPowers, H. A., 1961 —Geologic reconnaissance of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol. Surv. Bull.,1028-R, 563–581.Google Scholar
  10. Cole, J. W., 1965 —Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic zones in the North Island of New Zealand. Abstract of papers presented to Symposium of IAV in New Zealand.Google Scholar
  11. Coombs, D. S., 1963 —Trends and affinities of basaltic magmas and pyroxenes as illustrated on the diopside-olivine-silica diagram. Miner. Soc. America Sp. paper,1, 227–250.Google Scholar
  12. Coombs, H. A. andHoward, A. D., 1960 — C.A.V. Part 9,United States of America, 1–68.Google Scholar
  13. Fenner, C. N., 1926 —The Katmai magmatic province. Geol. Soc. America Bull.,34, 673–772.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher, N.H., 1957 — C.A.V. Part 5,Melanesia, 1–105.Google Scholar
  15. Gorshkov, G. S., 1958 — C.A.V. Part 7,Kurile Islands, 1–99.Google Scholar
  16. Gutenberg, B., andRichter, C. F., 1954 —Seismicity of the Earth. Princeton University Press, 28–64.Google Scholar
  17. Ichimura, T., 1950 —A brief geological note on the Kuanyin Volcano, Formosa. Geol. Soc. Japan Jour.,56, 493–498.Google Scholar
  18. Kuno, H., 1935 —Petrology of Alaid Volcano, North Kurile. Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr.,12, 153–162.Google Scholar
  19. —————, 1959 —Origin of Cenozoic petrographic provinces of Japan and surrounding areas. Bull. Volcanologique, Ser. II,20, 37–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuno, H. 1960 —High-alumina basalt. Jour. Petro,1, 121–145.Google Scholar
  21. —————, 1964 —Igneous rock series: Chemistry of the Earth’s crust, published for celebration of V.I. Vernadsky’s 100 th birthday, Moscow,2, 107–121 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  22. —————, 1965 —Some problems on calc-alkali rock series. Jap. Ass. Petro., Miner., Econ. Geol., Jour.,53, 131–142 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  23. -----, 1966 —Differentiation of basalt magmas. « Basaltic rocks » edited by H. H. Hess (in press).Google Scholar
  24. —————, andNagashima, K., 1957 —Differentiation of Hawaiian magmas. Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr., 28, 179–218.Google Scholar
  25. Kushiro, I., 1964 —The system diopside-forsterite-enstatite at 20 kilobars. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book,63, 101–108.Google Scholar
  26. -----, 1965 —The liquidus relations in the system forsterite-CaAlSiO 6-silica at high pressures. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book,64 (in press).Google Scholar
  27. —————, andKuno, H., 1963 —Origin of primary basalt magmas and classification of basaltic rocks. Jour. Petro.,4, 75–89.Google Scholar
  28. Macdonald, G. A., 1948 —Notes on Niuafo’ou. Am. Jour. Sci.,246, 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. —————, andKatsura, T., 1961 —Variations in the lava of the 1959 eruption in Kilauea Iki. Pacific Sci.,15, 358–369.Google Scholar
  30. —————, 1964 —Chemical composition of Hawaiian lavas. Jour. Petro.,5, 82–133.Google Scholar
  31. MacDonald, G. J. F., 1964 —Dependence of the surface heat flow on the radioactivity of the earth. Jour. Geoph. Res.,69, No. 14, 2933–2946.Google Scholar
  32. Masuda, A., 1964 —Lead isotope composition in volcanic rocks of Japan. Geoch. Cosmoch. Acta,28, 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mooser, F., Meyer-Abich, H., andMcBirney, A. R., 1958 — C.A.V. Part 6,Central America, 1–146.Google Scholar
  34. Neumann van Padang, M., 1951 — C.A.V. Part 1,Indonesia, 1–271.Google Scholar
  35. -----, 1953 — C.A.V. Part 2.Philippine Islands and Cochin China, 1–49.Google Scholar
  36. Powers, H. A., 1932 —The lavas of the Modoc Lava-Bed Quandrangle, California. Am. Miner.,17, 253–294.Google Scholar
  37. Richard, J. J., 1962 — C.A.V. Part 13,Kermadec, Tonga and Samoa, 1–38.Google Scholar
  38. Rittmann, A., 1953 —Magmatic character and tectonic of the Indonesian volcanoes. Bull. Volcanologique, Ser. II,14, 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. —————, 1958 —Determination of a serial index of volcanic rocks. Bull. Volcanologique, Ser. II,19, 41–42 (abstract).Google Scholar
  40. Snyder, G.L., 1959 —Geology of Little Sitkin Island, Alaska. Geol. Surv. Bull.,1028-H, 169–210.Google Scholar
  41. Stewart, D., 1956 —On the Petrology of Antarctica, Antarctica in the International Geophysical Year. Geoph. Monograph No. 1, 52–74.Google Scholar
  42. Sugimura, A., 1959 —Geographic distribution of ϑ value of volcanic rocks. Volc. Soc. Japan Bull., Ser. II,4, 77–103 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  43. Taneda, S., 1963 —Petrochemical studies on the active volcanoes in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. Bull. Volcanologique,16, 417–430.Google Scholar
  44. Tilley, C. E., 1950 —Some aspects of magmatic evolution. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London,106, 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tyrrell, G. W., 1945 —Report on rocks from West Antarctica and the Scotia Arc. Discovery Rep.,23, 37–102.Google Scholar
  46. Uffen, R. J., 1959 —On the origin of rock magma. Jour. Geoph. Res.,64, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vlodavetz, V. I., andPiip, B. I., 1959 — C.A.V. Part 8,Kamchatka and Continental areas of Asia, 1–110.Google Scholar
  48. Waters, A. C., 1962 —Basalt magma types and their tectonic associations. Pacific Northwest of the United States: The Crust of the Pacific Basin. Geoph. Monograph No. 6, Am. Geoph. Union, 158–170.Google Scholar
  49. Wilcox, R. E., 1954 —Petrology of Paricutin Volcano, Mexico. Geol. Surv. Bull.,965-C, 281–353.Google Scholar
  50. Williams, H., 1935 —Newberry volcano of central Oregon. Geol. Soc. America Bull.,46, 253–304.Google Scholar
  51. —————, 1942 —The geology of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, with a reconnaissance of the Cascade Range southward to Mount Shasta. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 540, 1–157.Google Scholar
  52. Yoder, H. S., Jr., andTilley, C. E., 1962 —Origin of basalt magmas: an experimentat study of natural and synthetic rock systems. Jour. Petro.,3, 342–532.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kuno
    • 1
  1. 1.Geological InstituteUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations