Skip to main content
Log in

Dose and scanning delay using USPIO for central nervous system macrophage imaging

  • Published:
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Rationale and objectives: In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), central nervous system (CNS) macrophage imaging is achievable by MRI using AMI-227 an ultra-small particle iron oxide contrast agent at a dose of 300 μmol/kg Fe. The objective was to test the feasibility at the human recommended dose of 45 μmol/kg Fe.Methods: Two groups of EAE rats were tested with AMI-227 using 45 and 300 μmol/kg Fe respectively. Following i.v. injection of AMI-227, they were scanned after a delay of 4–6 and 20–24 h.Results: With a high dose of AMI-227, all animals showed low signal intensity related to iron-loaded macrophages in the CNS. At low dose no abnormalities were found in the CNS. Furthermore, a delay of 4–6 h failed to demonstrate abnormalities even at high dose.Conclusions: Dose, scanning delay after administration and blood half-life are major parameters for T2* CNS macrophage imaging.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Weissleder R, Elizondo G, Wittenberg J, Lee AS, Josephson L, Brady TJ. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide: characterization of a new class contrast agents for MR imaging. Radiology 1990;175:494–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Weissleder R, Cheng H-C, Bogdanova A, Bogdanov A Jr. Magnetically labeled cells can be detected by MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 1997;7:258–63.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Anzai Y, Blackwell KE, Hirschowitz SL, Rogers JW, Sato Y, Yuh WTC, Runge VM, Morris MR, McLachan SJ, Lufkin RB. Initial clinical experience with dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide for detection of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Radiology 1994;192:709–15.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Dousset V, Delalande C, Ballarino L, et al. In vivo macrophage activity imaging in the central nervous system detected by magnetic resonance. Magn Reson Med 1999;41:329–333.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Coyle PK. The neuroimmunology of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neuroimmunol 1996;6:143–54.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Batholdi D, Suchwab ME. Methylprednisolone inhibits early inflammatory processes but not ischemic cell death after experimental cord lesion in rat. Brain Res 1995;672:177–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dubois-Dalcq M, Altmeyer R, Chiron M, Wilt S HIV interactions with cells of the nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1995;5:647–55.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Martin R, McFarland H. Immunological aspects of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1995;32:121–82.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Rossi ML, Jones NR, Candy E, et al. The mononuclear cell infiltrate compared with survival in high grade astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 1989;78:189–93.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Polman CH, Dijkstra CD, Sminia T, Koetsier JC. Immunohistological analysis of the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 1986;11:215–22.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bauer J, Huitinga I, Zhao W, Lassmann H, Hickey WF, Dijkstra CD. The role of macrophages, perivascular cells, and microglia cells in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Glia 1995;15:437–46.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis: immune system molecule expression in the central nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1994;53:328–37.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Chambon C, Clément O, Le Blanche A, Schouman-Claeys E, Frija G. Superparamagnetic iron oxides as positive MR contrast agents in vitro and in vivo. Magn Reson Imaging 1993;11:509–19.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Guimareas R, Clément O, Bittoun J, Carnot F, Frija G. MR lymphography with superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles in rats: pathologic basis for contrast enhancement. AJR 1994;162:201–7.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vincent Dousset.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dousset, V., Gomez, C., Petry, K.G. et al. Dose and scanning delay using USPIO for central nervous system macrophage imaging. MAGMA 8, 185–189 (1999).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: