Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected by the heart per unit time. It is a useful measurement in that it can be used to evaluate overall cardiac status in both critically ill patients and patients with suspected cardiovascular disease. An ideal cardiac output measurement system would have automated continuous output capability, be minimally invasive, accurate, fast, small, low cost and clinically adaptable. This paper presents a theoretical and practical description of the variety of clinical techniques in use today and lists their advantages and shortcomings with respect to the ideal system. Included are the Fick method, indicator dilution techniques, velocity measurements and transthoracic impedance and combined Doppler ultrasound as noninvasive techniques. In addition, several experimental methods are described along with their desirable features and possible constraints. These include intravascular heating/recording, thermistor tracking of cardiac output, ejection fraction measurements and magnetic susceptability plethysmography.
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Ehlers, K.C., Mylrea, K.C., Waterson, C.K. et al. Cardiac output measurements. A review of current techniques and research. Ann Biomed Eng 14, 219–239 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02584272
- Cardiac output
- Ejection fraction
- Indicator dilution