Home range structure and inter-group competition for land of Japanese macaques in evergreen and deciduous forests
The per capita home range area of Japanese macaques,Macaca fuscata, is significantly smaller in evergreen forest than in deciduous forest, though a corresponding difference in food resource utilization patterns has never been described. The present study compared the home range utilization pattern of Japanese macaques living in two habitats: the Yakushima population inhabits an evergreen forest, while the Kinkazan population inhabits a deciduous forest. We found that in the Yakushima population, (1) food density was higher; (2) inter-feeding bout sites distance was shorter; (3) daily travel distance was shorter; (4) home range size was smaller; and (5) the unit value of the main home range was higher, than in the Kinkazan population. Yakushima groups utilized a small home range area intensively, compared to Kinkazan groups. We also found that a Yakushima group shared 24% of its main home range with neighboring groups, though a Kinkazan group shared only 10% with other groups. It is supposed that food distribution affects daily ranging pattern, and ultimately the social relationships between groups in Japanese macaques.
Key wordsJapanese macaques Home range structure Inter-group competition Habitat quality
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