, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 97–101 | Cite as

Effect of a salmon diet on the distribution of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in normolipidemic adult men

  • Frank T. Lindgren
  • Gerald L. Adamson
  • Virgie G. Shore
  • Gary J. Nelson
  • Perla C. Schmidt


The effects of n−3 fatty acids on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apoproteins have usually been studied in humans after feeding of purified fish oil. This study describes the effect of a natural diet, containing salmon as the source of n−3 fatty acids, on these parameters as compared to a diet very low in n−3 fatty acids. The subjects were nine normolipidemic, healthy males who were confined to a nutrition suite for 100 days. During the first 20 days of the study the participants were given a stabilization diet consisting of 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 30% fat. The n−3 content of this diet was less than 1%, and it contained no 20- or 22-carbon n−3 fatty acids. After the stabilization period the men were split into two groups, one group continued on the stabilization diet while the other received the salmon diet that contained approximately 2.1 energy percent (En%) of calories from 20- and 22-carbon n−3 fatty acids. Both diets contained equal amounts of n−6 fatty acids. This regime continued for 40 days, then the two groups switched diets for the remainder of the study. Plasma triglycerides were lowered significantly (p<0.01) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated (p<0.01) after the men consumed the salmon diet for 40 days. The very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were lowered, but the trend did not reach statistical significance during the intervention period. The total plasma cholesterol, total low density lipoprotein (LDL) and the total high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were not influenced by the salmon diet. Within the HDL fraction, however, the larger HDL2 subfractions were significantly elevated (p<0.002), and the smaller, more dense HDL3 was lowered (p<0.002) by the salmon diet. These significant changes were detected by analytic ultracentrifugation and confirmed by gradient gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the apolipoproteins (apo) AI, AII, B, and E, and Lp(a) indicated only significant lowering of apoAI, consistent with the increased HDL2, which is higher in cholesterol but lower in the major HDL apolipoprotein, apoAI. Thus, the purported beneficial cardiovascular effects of consumption of n−3 fatty acids by humans may, in part, be attributable to changes in the HDL distribution,i.e., the lowering of the more dense HDL3 and the elevation of the larger, less dense HDL2.


High Density Lipoprotein Salmon Diet High Density Lipoprotein Fraction Stabilization Diet High Density Lipoprotein Subfractions 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



analytic ultracentrifugation




energy percent


gradient gel electrophoresis


high density lipoprotein


high density lipoprotein cholesterol


intermediate density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein cholesterol


very low density lipoprotein


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Harris, W.S., and Connor, W.E. (1980)Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicans 93, 148–155.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nestel, P.J., Connor, W.E., Reardon, M.F., Connor, S., Wong, S., and Boston, R. (1984)J. Clin. Invest. 74, 82–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Failor, R.A., Childs, M.T., and Bierman, E.L. (1988)Metabolism 37, 1021–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harris, W.S. (1989)J. Lipid Res. 30, 785–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pfeiffer, J.J., Janssen, F., Muesing, R., and Lundberg, W.O. (1962)J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 39, 292–296.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dyerberg, J., and Jorgensen, K.A. (1982)Prog. Lipid Res. 21, 255–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kromann, N., and Green, A. (1980)Acta Med. Scand. 208, 401–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodnight, S.H., Harris, W.S., Connor, W.E., and Illingworth, D.R. (1982)Arteriosclerosis 2, 87–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lands, W.E.M. (1986) inFish and Human Health, pp. 15–19, Academic Press, Onlando, FL.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kinsella, J.E. (1987)Seafoods and Fish Oils in Human Health and Disease, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nelson, G.J., Schmidt, P.C., and Corash, L. (1991)Lipids 26, 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Orr, J.R., Adamson, G.L., and Lindgren, F.T. (1990) inThe Analysis of Fats, Oils, Other Lipids, and Lipoproteins (Perkins, E.G., ed.) American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL, in press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lindgren, F.T., Jensen, L.C., and Hatch, F.T. (1972) inBlood Lipids and Lipoproteins: Quantitation, Composition, and Metabolism (Nelson, G.J., ed.), pp. 181–274, Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lindgren, F.T., Hulley, S.B., Adamson, G.L., Glines, L.L., and Kahlon, T.S. (1979) inDietary Fats in Health and Disease (Perkins, E.G., ed.), pp. 564–573, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson, D.W., Nichols, A.V., Pan, S.S., and Lindgren, F.T. (1978)Atherosclerosis 29, 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nichols, A.V., Krauss, R.M., and Musliner, T.A. (1986)Methods Enzymol. 128, 412–431.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krauss, R.M., and Burke, D.J. (1982)J. Lipid Res. 23, 97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Voller, A., Bidwell, D.E., and Bartlett, A. (1979)The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Dynatech Laboratories, Inc., Alexandria, VA.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albers, J.J., and Adolphson, J.L. (1988)J. Lipid Res. 29, 102–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lindgren, F.T., Shore, V.G., Adamson, G.L., and Glines, L.A. (1988)J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 65, 532–533.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van Houwelingen, R., Zevenbergen, H., Groot, P., Kester, A., and Hornstra, G. (1990)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 393–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abbey, M., Clifton, P., Kestin, M., Belling, B., and Nestel, P. (1990)Arteriosclerosis 10, 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anderson, D.W., Nichols, A.V., Pan, S.S., and Lindgren, F.T. (1978)Atherosclerosis 29, 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Griffin, B.A., Skinner, E.R., and Maughan, R.J. (1988)Atherosclerosis 70, 165–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harris, W.S., Rothrock, D.W., Fanning, A., Inkeles, S.B., Goodnight, S.H., Illingsworth, D.R., and Conner, W.E. (1990)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 399–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank T. Lindgren
    • 1
  • Gerald L. Adamson
    • 1
  • Virgie G. Shore
    • 2
  • Gary J. Nelson
    • 3
  • Perla C. Schmidt
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division, Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley
  2. 2.Biomedical Sciences DivisionLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermore
  3. 3.Western Human Nutrition Research CenterU.S. Department of Agriculture, ARSPresidio of San Francisco

Personalised recommendations