Skip to main content

Lignan analysis in seed oils from fourSesamum species: Comparison of different chromatographic methods


Different chromatographic methods, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and normal- and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were compared for their ability to separate the different lignans present in fourSesamum species,viz., S. indicum Linn.,S. alatum Thonn., S. radiatum Schum & Thonn. andS. angustifolium (Oliv.) Engl. The advantages and limitations of each method are discussed, and a combination of methods is suggested for qualitative analyses. Two-dimensional TLC was found to be a valuable qualitative technique and one-dimensional TLC is useful for preparative purposes. GC is a good supplement for qualitative analysis, but it had many limitations as a quantitative tool—it involves many preparative steps, no suitable internal standard was found to be commercially available and the various lignans had markedly different response factors. GC/MS is a necessary techniqee to confirm the identity of the lignans present. HPLC is a one-step technique suitable for quantitative analyses, and is fast and simple because it involves direct injection of oil solutions. Reversed-phase HPLC was unable to separate sesamolin and sesangolin, but a normal-phase silica column provided satisfactory separation for these two lignans. 2-Episesalation ofS. alatum, however, did not elute from the normalphase column. Once lignans are identified, a relevant HPLC method can be used for quantitative analyses. Sesamin was present in large amounts inS. radiatum, in considerable amounts inS. indicum andS. angustifolium, and in small amounts inS. alatum. Sesamolin occurred in considerable amounts inS. indicum andS. angustifolium, but only in small amounts in the other two wild species studied.Sesamum alatum was characterized by high amounts of 2-episesalatin, andS. angustifolium was characterized by high levels of sesangolin.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Tashiro, T., Y. Kukuda, T. Osawa and M. Namiki,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67:508 (1990).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Budowski, P. and K.S. Markely,Chem. Revs. 48:125 (1951).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Fukuda, Y., and T. Osawa,Agric. Biol. Chem. 49:301 (1985).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Fukuda, Y., M. Nagata, T. Osawa and M. Namiki,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63:1027 (1986).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Fukuda, Y., M. Nagata, T. Osawa and M. Namiki, —Ibid.50:857 (1986).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Ashri, A., inOil Crops of the World, edited by G. Röbbelen, R.K. Downey and A. Ashri, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1989, pp. 375–387.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Anonymous, inSesame: Status and Improvements, edited by A. Ashri, FAO Plant Production and Protection, Paper 29, 1981, p. 192.

  8. Anonymous, inSesame and Safflower: Status and Potentials, edited by A. Ashri, FAO Plant Production and Protection, Paper 66.

  9. Kamal-Eldin, A., G. Yousif, L.Å. Appelqvist and G.M. Iskander,J. Fat Sci. and Technol. 94:254 (1992).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Kamal-Eldin, A., L.Å. Appelqvist, G. Yousif and G.M. Iskander,J. Sci. Food and Agric. 59:327 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kamal-Eldin, A., G. Yousif and L.Å. Appelqvist,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68:844 (1991).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Kamal-Eldin, A. and G. Yousif,Phytochemistry 31:2911 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Jones, W.A., M. Beroza and E.D. Becker,J. Org. Chem. 27:3232 (1962).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Bedigian, D., D.S. Seigler and J.R. Harlan,Biochem. System. and Ecology 13:133 (1985).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Fukuda, Y., T. Osawa, S. Kawagishi and M. Namiki,J. Japanese Soc. Food Sci. and Technol. 35:483 (1988).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 7th edn., edited by C. Paquot, and A. Hautfenne, Blackwell Sci. Publications, 1987, pp. 157–162.

  17. Itoh, T., T. Tamura and T. Matsumoto,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 50:300 (1973).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Kamal-Eldin, A. and L.Å. Appelqvist, —Ibid. 71:149 (1994).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


About this article

Cite this article

Kamal-Eldin, A., Appelqvist, L.Å. & Yousif, G. Lignan analysis in seed oils from fourSesamum species: Comparison of different chromatographic methods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 71, 141–147 (1994).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • 2-Episesalatin
  • GC
  • GC/MS
  • HPLC
  • lignans
  • seed oils
  • sesame
  • sesamin
  • sesamolin
  • Sesamum
  • sesangolin
  • TLC