, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 243–272 | Cite as

Environmental distribution of trace fossils in the Jurassic of Kachchh (Western India)

  • Franz Theodor Fürsich


Trace fossils occur abundantly in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Kachchh Basin. They are found in environments ranging from beach sequences down to central parts of the basin. For stratinomic reasons, they are particularly well preserved in storm deposits. Their distribution pattern exhibits a clear relationship to the hydrodynamic conditions and, secondarily, to bathymetry, and follows the classic ichnofacies concept ofSeilacher (1967). High energy nearshore areas and submarine shoals are represented by members of the Skolithos ichnofacies such asOphiomorpha nodosa, Arenicolites, Diplocraterion parallelum, andRhizocorallium jenense. The storm-influenced ramp contains both members of the Cruziana ichnofacies (e.g.Rhizocorallium irregulare, Thalassinoides suevicus, Taenidium serpentinum, Chondrites) and the Skolithos ichnofacies (in particularOphiomorpha). The former were produced during interstorm phases, the latter are of post-storm origin. Carbonate ramp environments of low to intermediate energy also contain members of the Cruziana ichnofacies, whilst equivalent siliciclastic environments are characterized by a low-diversity Zoophycos ichnofacies. Low energy basinal environments of fine-grained substrates contain an impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies consisting ofChondrites, Trichichnus andThalassinoides suevicus.

32 ichnotaxa are briefly described, among themSphaerichnus lobatus ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.


Trace fossils Taxonomy Ichnofacies Environments India Jurassic 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Badve, R.M. &Ghare, M.A. (1978): Jurassic ichnofauna of Kutch. I.—Biovigyanam4, 125–140.Google Scholar
  2. Bavde, R.M., Ghare, M.A. &Kulkarni, K.G. (1985): Ethological interpretation of ichnogenusZoophycos Massalongo.— Current Sci.54, 723–727.Google Scholar
  3. Biswas, S.K. (1980): Mesozoic rock-stratigraphy of Kutch, Gujarat.— Quart. J. Geol. Min. Metall. Soc. India49, 1–52. (for 1977)Google Scholar
  4. Biswas, S.K. (1982): Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch Basin.—Am. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull.66, 1497–1513.Google Scholar
  5. Biswas, S.K. (1991): Stratigraphy and sedimentary evolution of the Mesozoic basin of Kutch, Western India.—In:Tandon, S.K., Pant, C.C. &Casshyap, S.M. (eds.): Sedimentary basins of India. Tectonic context.—74–103. Nainital (Gyanodaya Prakashan)Google Scholar
  6. Bottjer, D.J., Droser, M.L. &Jablonski, D. (1988): Palaeo-environmental trends in the history of trace fossils.—Nature3 33, 252–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradshaw, M.A. (1981): Paleoenvironmental interpretations and systematics of Devonian trace fossils from the Taylor Group (Lower Beacon Supergroup), Antarctica.—New Zealand J. Geol. Geophys.24, 615–652.Google Scholar
  8. Branson, C.C. (1961): New records of the scyphomedusanConostichus.—Oklah. Geol. Notes21 (5), 130–138.Google Scholar
  9. Buatois, L.A., Jalfin, G. &Aceñolaza, F.G. (1997): Permian nonmarine invertebrate trace fossils from southern Patagonia, Argentina: Ichnologic signatures of substrate consolidation and colonization sequences.—J. Paleont.71, 324–336.Google Scholar
  10. D'Alessandro, A. &Bromley, R.G. (1987): Meniscate trace fossils and theMuensteria-Taenidium problem.—Palaeontology30, 743–763.Google Scholar
  11. Föllmi, K.B. &Grimm, K.A. (1990): Doomed pioneers: Gravity flow deposition and bioturbation in marine oxygen-deficient environments.—Geology18, 1069–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frey, R.W. &Seilacher, A. (1980): Uniformity in marine invertebrate ichnology.—Lethaia13, 183–207.Google Scholar
  13. Fu Shaoping (1991): Funktion, Verhalten und Einteilung fucoider und lophoctenoider Lebensspuren.—Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg135, 1–79.Google Scholar
  14. Fürsich, F.T. (1975): Trace fossils as environmental indicators in the Corallian of England and Normandy.—Lethaia8, 151–172.Google Scholar
  15. Fürsich, F.T. &Bromley, R.G. (1985): Behavioural interpretation of a rosetted spreite trace fossil:Dactyloidites ottoi (Geinitz).—Lethaia18, 199–207.Google Scholar
  16. Fürsich, F.T. &Oschmann, W. (1993): Shell beds as tools in basin analysis: the Jurassic of Kachchh, western India.—J. geol. Soc. London150, 169–185.Google Scholar
  17. Fürsich, F.T., Oschmann, W., Jaitly, A.K. &Singh, I.B. (1991): Faunal response to transgressive-regressive cycles: example from the Jurassic of western India.—Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.85, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fürsich, F.T., Oschmann, W., Singh, I.B. &Jaitly, A.K. (1992): Hardgrounds, reworked concretion levels, and condensed horizons in the Jurassic of Western India and their significance for basin analysis.—J. geol. Soc. London149, 313–331.Google Scholar
  19. Fürsich, F.T., Pandey, D.K., Callomon, J.H., Oschmann, W. &Jaitly, A.K. (1994): Contributions to the Jurassic of Kachchh, Western India. II. Bathonian stratigraphy and depositional environment of the Sadhara Dome, Pachchham Island.— Beringeria12, 95–125.Google Scholar
  20. Ghare, M.A. &Kulkarni, K.G. (1986): Jurassic ichnofauna of Kutch II: Wagad region.—Biovigyanam12, 44–62.Google Scholar
  21. Gluszek, A. (1995): Invertebrate trace fossils in the continental deposits of an Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing succession, Upper Silesia, Poland.—Studia Geol. Polon.108, 171–202.Google Scholar
  22. Han Yaojun &Pickerill, R.K. (1994): Taxonomic reassessment ofProtovirgularia M'Coy 1850 with new examples from the Paleozoic of New Brunswick, eastern Canada.—Ichnos3, 203–212.Google Scholar
  23. Heinberg, C. (1973): The internal structure of the trace fossilsGyrochorte andCurvolithus.—Lethaia6, 227–238.Google Scholar
  24. Howard, J.D. &Singh, I.B. (1985). Trace fossils in the Mesozoic sediments of Kachchh, Western India.-Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.52, 99–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jensen, S. (1997): Trace fossils from the Lower Cambrian Mickwitzia sandstone, south-central Sweden.—Fossils & Strata42, 1–110.Google Scholar
  26. Keighley, D.G. &Pickerill, R.K. (1994): The ichnogenusBeaconites and its distinction fromAncorichnus andTaenidium.— Palaeontology37, 305–337.Google Scholar
  27. Keighley, D.G. &Pickerill, R.K. (1995): The ichnotaxaPalaeophycus andPlanolites: historical perspectives and recommendations.—Ichnos3, 301–309.Google Scholar
  28. Kulkarni, K.G. &Ghare, M.A. (1989): Stratigraphic distribution of ichnotaxa in Wagad region, Kutch, India.—J. Geol. Soc. India33, 259–267.Google Scholar
  29. Kulkarni, K.G. &Ghare, M.A. (1991): Locomotory traces (Repichnia) from the Jurassic sequence of Kutch, Gujarat.—J. Geol. Soc. India37, 374–387.Google Scholar
  30. Kumar, A., Bartarya, S.K. &Bisht, K. (1982): Distribution of trace fossils in the Mesozoic rocks of Kutch, India.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1982, 36–40.Google Scholar
  31. McBride, E.F. &Picard, M.D. (1991): Facies implications ofTrichichnus andChondrites in turbidites and hemipelagites, Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Miocene), northern Apennines, Italy.—Palaios6, 281–290.Google Scholar
  32. Nara, M. (1995).Rosselia socialis: a dwelling structure of a probable terebellid polychaete.—Lethaia28, 171–178.Google Scholar
  33. Reineck, H.-E. &Singh, I.B. (1975): Depositional sedimentary environments.—439 p., Berlin (Springer).Google Scholar
  34. Seilacher, A. (1967): Bathymetry of trace fossils.—Marine Geology5, 513–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seilacher, A. &Seilacher, E. (1994): Bivalvian trace fossils: A lesson from actuopaleontology.—Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg169, 5–15.Google Scholar
  36. Shringarpure, D.M. (1986): Trace fossils at omission surfaces from the Mesozoic of Kutch, Gujarat, western India.—Bull. Geol. Min. Met. Soc. India54, 131–148.Google Scholar
  37. Singh, C.S.P., Jaitly, A.K. &Pandey, D.K. (1982): First report of some Bajocian-Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) ammonoids and the age of oldest sediments from Kachchh, W. India.— Newsl. Stratigr.11, 37–40.Google Scholar
  38. Tunis, G. &Uchman, A. (1996): Trace fossils and facies changes in Cretaceous-Eocene flysch deposits of the Julian Prealps (Italy and Slovenia): consequences of regional and world-wide changes.—Ichnos4, 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Uchman, A. (1995): Taxonomy and palaeoecology of flysch trace fossils: The Marnoso-arenacea Formation and associated facies (Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy).—Beringeria15, 3–115.Google Scholar
  40. Volk, M. (1968):Trichophycus thuringicum, eine Lebensspur aus den Phycodes-Schichten (Ordovizium) Thüringens.— Senckenbergiana lethaea49, 581–585.Google Scholar
  41. Walter, M.R., Elphinstone, R. &Heys, G.R. (1989): Proterozoic and Early Cambrian trace fossils from the Amadeus and Georgina Basins, central Australia.—Alcheringia13, 209–256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut für Paläontologie, Universität Erlangen 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Theodor Fürsich
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Paläontologie der Universität WürzburgWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations