Facies

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 223–235 | Cite as

Lithostratigraphy and facies development of upper cretaceous carbonates in east central Sinai, Egypt

  • Mahmoud Kora
  • Adel Genedi
Article

Summary

The Upper Cretaceous exposures in east central Sinai are represented by carbonate-dominated successions interbedding few sandstone, chert, shale and marl horizons. The recognised rock units are correlated with their counterparts commonly used in the Gulf of Suez region and central Sinai including from base to top: the Raha Formation, Abu Qada Formation, Wata Formation, Matulla Formation and the Sudr Chalk.

Twelve limestone microfacies are encountered and are categorised as mudstones (pelmicrite and ostracod micrite), wackestones (pelagic biomicrite and foraminiferal biomicrite), grainstones (foraminiferal biopelsparite and oosparite), boundstones (bindstone and framestone), floatstones (coated-grained biomicrudite, rudist biomicrudite and shelly biomicrudite) and rudstones (shelly biosparudite). The dolostone microfacies include fine-medium crystalline ostracod dolostones and shelly dolostones. These microfacies have been compared with the Standard Microfacies Types and their depositional environments are discussed.

The encountered litho- and biofacies suggest that the Cenomanian shallow transgressive sea had covered east central Sinai as far south as the Dahab region. By the advent of the Turonian, open marine subtidal conditions prevailed. This was followed by transitional conditions with shoals and tidal bars in the Late Turonian pointing to a regressive phase more pronounced at the southern localities. The rocks of the Matulla Formation were deposited in an oscillating environment of shallow subtidal to intertidal conditions during Coniacian-Santonian. In the Late Santonian and during most of the Campanian-Maastrichtian, sedimentation was influenced by open marine conditions with low sedimentation rates; local shallow subtidal regressive events occurred.

KeyWords

Lithostratigraphy Microfacies Geologic History Sinai (Egypt) Cenomanian to Maastrichtian 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel Gawad, G.I. (1990): Occurrence of heteromorph ammonites in the uppermost Campanian of southern Sinai Egypt.— M.E.R.C., Ain Shams University, Earth Science Series,4, 222–233, 2 Figs., 1 Table, 2 Pls., CairoGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel Gawad, G.I. & Zalat, A. (1990): Some Upper Cretaceous macroinvertebrates from Gebel El-Hamra and Um Heriba, Mitla Pass, west-central Siani, Egypt.—Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Geology of the Arab World, 1–8, 2 Figs., 5 Pls., CairoGoogle Scholar
  3. Abu Khadra,A.M.,Darwish,M.,El-Azabi,M.H. &Abdel Fattah,M.A. (1987): Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary succession in the Gulf of Suez (Southern Galala Plateau), Egypt.—In:Matheis,G. &Schandelmeier,H. (eds.): Current Research in African Earth Sciences.—171-176, Rotterdam (Balkema)Google Scholar
  4. Amthor, J.E. &Friedman, G.M. (1992): Early to late diagenetic dolomitization of platform carbonates: Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, Permian Basin, West Texas.—J. Sed. Petrol.62/1, 131–144, 10 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandel, K. &Kuss, J. (1987): Depositional environment of the pre-rift sediments-Galala Heights (Gulf of Suez, Egypt).— Berliner Geowiss. Abh.78, 1–48, 11 Figs., 6 Pls., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartov, T. &Steinttz, G. (1977): The Judea and Mount Scopus Group in the Negev and Sinai with trend surface analysis of the thickness data.—Israel J. Earth Sci.26, 119–148, 15 Figs., 2 Tables, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  7. Bein, A. (1976): Rudistid fringing reefs of Cretaceous shallow carbonate platform of Israel.—Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull.60/2, 258–272, 15 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  8. Cherif, O.H., Al Rifaiy, I.A., Al Afifi, F.I. &Orabi, O.H. (1989a): Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoecology of some Cenomanian-Turonian exposures in west-central Sinai, Egypt. —Rev. Micropaléontologie31/4, 243–262, 2 Pls., ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Cherif, O.H., Al Rifaiy, I.A., Al Afifi, F.I. &Orabi, O.H. (1989b): Planktonic foraminifera and chronostratigraphy of Senonian exposures in west central Sinai, Egypt.—Rev. Micropaléontologie32/3, 167–184, 6 Figs., 2 Pls., 1 Table, ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunham, R.J. (1962): Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture.—In:Ham, W.E. (ed.): Classification of carbonate rocks, a symposium.—Amer. Assoc. Petrol., Geol., Bull. 1, 108–121, 7 Pls., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  11. El Shinnawi, M.A. &Sultan, I.Z. (1973): Lithostratigraphy of some subsurface Upper Cretaceous sections in the Gulf of Suez area, Egypt.—Acta Geologica Hungaricae17, 469–494, 5 Figs., 2 Tables, 8 Pls., BudapestGoogle Scholar
  12. Embry, A.F. &Klovan, E.J. (1972): Absolute water depth limits of Late Devonian paleoecological zones.—Geol. Rdsch.61/2, 672–686, 10 Figs., StuttgartCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eyal, M., Bartov, Y., Shimron, A.E. &Bentor, Y.K. (1980): Sinai Geological Map, Scale 1∶500,000.—G.S.I., JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  14. Flexer, A. &Honigstein, A. (1984): The Senonian succession in Israel; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and sea level changes. —Cretaceous Research5, 303–312, 4 Figs., 1 Table, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Flexer, A., Rosenfeld, A., Lipson-Benitah, S. &Honigstein, A. (1986): Relative sea level changes during the Cretaceous in Israel.—Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull.70/11, 1685–1699, 11 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  16. Folk, R.L. (1959): Practical petrographic classification of limestones. —Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull.43/1, 1–38, 14 Figs., 2 Tables, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  17. Garfunkel, Z. &Bartov, Y. (1977): The tectonics of the Suezrift. —G.S.I. Bull. 71, 1–44, 1 Table, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghorab, M.A. (1961): Abnormal stratigraphic features in Ras Gharib oil field.—Proc. 3rd Arab Petroleum Congress 2, 1–10, 2 Figs., AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hamza, F.H. (1993): Upper Cretaceous rudist-coral buildups associated with tectonic doming in the Abu Roash area, Egypt.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh.1993/2, 75–87, 6 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  20. Hataba, H. & Ammar, G. (1990): Comparative stratigraphic study on the Upper Cenomanian-Lower Senonian sediments between the Gulf of Suez and Western Desert, Egypt.—Proc. 10th Exploration & Production Conference, 1–16, 8 Figs., 3 Pls., CairoGoogle Scholar
  21. Hilderbrand, N., Shirav, M. &Freund, R. (1975): Structure of the western margin of the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba) in the Wadi El-Quseib-Wadi Haimur area, Sinai.—Israel J. Earth Sci.23, 117–130, 9 Figs., JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  22. Klitzsch,E. &Hermina,M. (1989): The Mesozoic.—In:Klitzsch,E.,Hermina,M. &List,F.K. (eds.): Stratigraphic Lexicon and explanatory notes to the geologic map of Egypt 1∶500.000.— Conoco Inc., pp. 77-139, CairoGoogle Scholar
  23. Kora, M. (1991): Lithostratigraphy of the Early Palaeozoic succession in Ras El-Naqab area, east-central Sinai, Egypt.— Newsl. Stratigr.24/1–2, 45–57, 5 Figs., Berlin, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  24. Kora, M. &Ayyad, S.N. (1988): Biostratigraphy of an Early- to Middle Eocene unconformity-bounded sequence at Bir Safra area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt.—Newsl. Stratigr.18/3, 139–146, 3 Figs., Berlin, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  25. Kora, M., El Sherbini, M. &Genedi, A. (1988): Petrology of the Late Cretaceous—Early Tertiary succession in Bir Safra area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt.—Mans. Sci. Bull.15/2, 129–158, 4 Figs., MansouraGoogle Scholar
  26. Kora, M. &Hamama, H. (1987): Biostratigraphy of the Cenomanian —Turonian of Gabal Gunna, southeastern Sinai.—Mans. Sci. Bull.14, 289–301, 2 Figs., 1 Pl., MansouraGoogle Scholar
  27. Kora, M., Shahin, A. & Semiet, A. (1994): Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of some Cenomanian successions in the west central Sinai, Egypt.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh.1994/9, 21 pp., 10 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuss, J. (1989): Facies and paleogeograpahic importance of the pre-rift limestones NE-Egypt/Sinai.—Geol. Rdsch.78/2, 487–498, 4 Figs., StuttgartCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuss,J. &Malchus,N. (1989): Facies and composite biostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous strata from northeast Egypt. —In:Wiedmann,J. (ed.): Cretaceous of the Western Tethys.— 3rd Int. Cretaceous Symposium Tübingen 1987, 879-910, 53 Figs., 1 Table, Stuttgar (Schweizerbart)Google Scholar
  30. Lewy, A. (1975): The geological history of southern Israel and Sinai during the Coniacian.—Israel J. Earth Sci.24, 19–43, 15 Figs., 1 Pl., 2 Tables, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  31. Pittman, E.D. & Hozayen, M. (1984): Petrology of the Turonian —Lower Senonian, west Abu Rudies area, Gulf of Suez.—Proc. 6th Exploration and Production Conference, 289–301, 9 Figs., CairoGoogle Scholar
  32. Refaat, A.A.A. (1993): Facies development of the Coniacian-Santonian sediments along the Gulf of Suez, Egypt.—Berliner geowiss. Abh. (A)150, 146 pp., 35 Figs., 28 Tables, 3 Pls., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  33. Said,R. (1990): Cretaceous paleogeographic maps.—In:Said,R. (ed.): The Geology of Egypt.—439-449, 9 Figs., Rotterdam (Balkema)Google Scholar
  34. Sellwood,B.W. (1978): Shallow water carbonate environments. —In:Reading,H.G. (ed.): Sedimentary environments and facies.—259-313, 50 Figs., 2 Tables, New York (Elsevier)Google Scholar
  35. Shahin, A. (1988): Fossil fauna and stable isotopic composition within the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary at Gebel Nezzazat, Sinai, Egypt.—Ph.D. Thesis, Mansoura University, 212 pp., 15 Figs., 31 Pls., 3 Tables, MansouraGoogle Scholar
  36. — (1991): Cenomanian-Turonian ostracods from Gebel Nezzazat, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt with observations on δ13C values and the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary.—J. Micropaleontol.10/3, 133–150, 3 Figs., 4 Pls., BlackpoolGoogle Scholar
  37. Shahin, A. &Kora, M. (1991): Biostratigraphy of some Upper Cretaceous successions in the eastern central Sinai, Egypt.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont Mh.1991/11, 671–692., 10 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  38. Shirav, M. (1985): Stratigraphy and structure of Quseib graben, northern Gulf of Eilat.—G.S.I. Annual Meeting, Abstracts, 2 pp., 1 Fig., JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Houten, F.B., Bhattacharyya, D.P. &Mansour, S.E.I. (1984): Cretaceous Nubia Formation and correlative deposits, eastern Egypt: Major regressive-transgressive complex.—Geol. Soc. America Bull.95, 397–405, 7 Figs., New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilson, J.L. (1975): Carbonate facies in geologic history.— 471 pp., 30 Pls., 183 Figs., Berlin (Springer)Google Scholar
  41. Ziko, A., Darwish, M. &Eweda, S. (1993): Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary stratigraphy of the Themed area, East Central Sinai, Egypt.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh.1993/3, 135–149, 6 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut für Paläontologie, Universität Erlangen 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Kora
    • 1
  • Adel Genedi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations