Vendian-Cambrian tidal and sabkha facies of the Siberian platform
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The Vendian-Cambrian interval on the Siberian Platform contains thick carbonate and evaporite sequences formed in extensive shallow-water basins. The carbonate sequences are characterized by a cyclic composition. Finegrained dolomites, undulated algal dolomites, flat pebble conglomerates, storm breccias and solution-collapse breccias form the base of each cycle. These rocks are characterized by an increased clay content which can be high enough to form argillites. Short sedimentation breaks reflected by mudcracks or silicification horizons are present as well as small cross-bedded tidal channels. Peloidal grainstones with algal overgrowth dominate in the central parts of the cycles. These members are often recrystallized and dolomitized. Micritic dolomites, undulous laminated dolomites, storm breccias and columnar stromatolites with abundant mud cracks form the upper members of the cycles. These sequences are free of clay but contain abundant anhydrite crystals and nodules. In the uppermost parts of some cycles massive layered anhydrite beds are present. The cycles vary in thickness, but usually they are between 15 and 20 m thick.
The lower cycle member documents extreme shallow-water deposits. They formed in tidal and partially also supratidal zones not far from the mainland, from where fine clayey material was washed in. These parts of the sequence reflect a slow transgression.
The central member of a cycle was deposited during the maximal transgression in a shallow basin with normal salinity and rather active hydrodynamics.
Sedimentation of the upper part of the cycles reflects a regression stage (tidal and especially sabkha environments). The final layered anhydrite beds formed most probably in relict lakes on the sabkha plain. During sea-level falls some sequences of the central parts of the cycles were subaerially exposed and underwent partial dolomitization.
The Vendian-Cambrian sabkhas are partly comparable with their recent counterparts.
KeywordsMicrofacies Tidal Deposits Sabkha Siberian Platform Vendian-Cambrian
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