Advertisement

Facies

, 27:71 | Cite as

Facies belts and communities of the arctic Vesterisbanken Seamount (Central Greenland Sea)

  • Rüdiger Henrich
  • Martin Hartmann
  • Joachim Reitner
  • Priska Schäfer
  • André Freiwald
  • Stefan Steinmetz
  • Peter Dietrich
  • Jörn Thiede
Article

Summary

The Arctic Vesterisbanken Seamount, situated far offshore in the central Greenland Sea, provides a unique facility for studing modern cold water siliceous carbonate deposits. A nearly year round sea ice cover, which retreats on average only during two months, and a rather constant temperature and salinity structure of the water column characterize the Arctic conditions of the area.

Despite predominantly oligotrophic conditions with a pronounced food supply from the pelagic realm only during the ice-free season, the seamount is covered extensively by extended sponge-bryozoan constructions. Three distinct facies belts reveal a pronounced depth zonation which depends on variations in downslope food transfer and which is specifically effective due to the development of aTaylor current regime over the seamount: i) the crest facies from the summit at −133m to −260 m, ii) the shallow slope facies from −260 m to −400 m, iii) the deep slope facies from −400 m down to the abyssal plain at about— 3.000 m. Different biogenic structures and communities are found within these facies belts, including widely extended biogenic mats, sponge bryozoan-serpulid buildups with mounds, hedges, spurs and flatcake-like structures, bryozoan thickets and sponge-crinoid mounds. Depth zonation, internal structure and controlling parameters in the formation of these biogenic structures are discussed in the context of their significance as a modern end member of the Foramol facies and their implication for the fossil record. In addition, the younger volcanic and hydrothermal history of the seamount is presented with special reference to its bearing on Holocene biogenic colonization patterns.

Keywords

Greenland Sea Sponge Bryozoan Mound Spiculite Development Microbial Binding Arctic Foramol Facies Benthic Communities Holocene 

References

  1. Altenbach, A. V., Unsöld, G. &Walger, E. (1987): The hydrodynamic environment ofSaccorhiza ramosa.—Ber. Sonderforschungsber. 313,6, 47–68, Kiel.Google Scholar
  2. Armauer Hansen, G. (1885): Spongiadae.—The Norwegian North-Atlantic Expeditions 1876–1878,13 (Zoology), 25 pp., Christiania (Leipzig)Google Scholar
  3. Augstein, E., Hempel, G., Schwarz, G., Thiede, J. & Weigel, W. (1984): Die Expedition ARKTIS II des FS “Polarstern” 1984. —Ber. Polarforschung,20, 192 pp., BremerhavenGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernhard, F. R. (1979): Bivalve molluscs of the western Beaufort Sea.—Contr. Sci.,313, 80 pp, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  5. Boehlert, G. W. (1987): A review of the effects of seamounts on biological processes.—In:Keating, B. H., Fryer, P., Batiza, R. & Boehlert, G. W. (eds.): Seamounts, Islands and Atolls, Geophysical Monographs,43, 319–333, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. Breitfuss, L. L. (1898): Die arctische Kalkschwammfauna.— Arch.f.Naturgesch., 277–316, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Brönstedt, H. V. (1914): Porifera—Conspectus Faunae Groenlandicae. —Meddl. om Grønland,23, 459–544, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  8. Bullivant, J. S. & Dearborn, J. H. (1967): The fauna of the Ross Sea, Pt. 5.—New Zealand Dept. Scient. Industr. Res. Bull.,176, 76 pp, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton, M. (1934): Zoological results of the Norwegian scientific expeditions to East-Greenland. III. Report on the sponges of the Norwegian expeditons to East-Greenland (1930, 1931, and 1932).—Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet,61, 33 pp., OsloGoogle Scholar
  10. Burton, M. (1959): Spongia.—The Zoology of Island,2 (Part 3–4), 71 pp., Kopenhagen & ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, A. H. (1970): Echinodermata Crinoidea.—Marine Invertebrates of Scandinavia,3, 55pp., OsloGoogle Scholar
  12. Eggvin, J. (1963): Bathymetric chart of the Norwegian Sea and adjacent areas. Scale 1∶5.000.000.—Fiskeridir. Havforskingsinst., BergenGoogle Scholar
  13. Eldholm, O. &Thiede, J. (1980): Cenozoic continental separation between Europe and Greenland.—Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,30, 243–259, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fairbanks, R. G. (1989): A 17.000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation.—Nature,143, 637–642, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fristedt, K. (1885): Bidrag till Kännedomen om de vid Sveriges vestra kust lefvande Spongiae.— Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akad. Handl.,21/6, 56 pp., StockholmGoogle Scholar
  16. Graf, G. (1989): Benthic-pelagic coupling in the deep-sea benthic community.—Nature,341, 437–439, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gulliksen, B., Haug, T. &Sandnes, K. (1980): Benthic macrofauna on new and old lava grounds at Jan Mayen.—Sarsia,65, 137–148, BergenGoogle Scholar
  18. Harmelin, J.-G. (1975): Relation entre la forme zoariale et l’habitat chez les bryozoaires cyclostomes et consèquences taxonomique. Docum. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. Lyon (hors Ser.)3 (Bryozoa 1974), 369–384, LyonGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartmann, M., Lass, H. & Puteanus, D. (1989): A new method for trace metal determination in seawater.—In:Welz, B. (ed.): 5. Colloquium Atomspektrometrische Spurenanalytik, 703–709Google Scholar
  20. Hayward, P. J. &Ryland, J. S. (1979): British Ascophoran bryozoans.—In:Kermack, D. M. &Barnes, R.S.K. (eds.), Synopsis of the British Fauna (n. s.),14, 1–312, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Hempel, P., Schreiber, R., Johnson, L. &Thiede, J. (1991): The Vesterisbanken Seamount (Greenland Basin)—patterns of morphology and sediment distribution.—Marine Geology96, 175–185, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hentschel, E. (1916): Die Spongien des Eisfjordes.—Zool. Ergebn. der Schwedischen Expedition nach Spitzbergen 1908, TeilII (3), 18 pp., StockholmGoogle Scholar
  23. Hogg, N. G. (1973): On the stratifiedTaylor column.—J. Fluid Mechanics,58, 517–537, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hörmann, P. K. & Raase, P. (1991) Petrology of basalts from the Vesterisbanken (Greenland Sea).—Marine Geology (in press)Google Scholar
  25. Huppert, H. E. (1975): Some remarks on the initiation of inertialTaylor columns,—J. Fluid Mechanics,67, 397–412, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johannessen, O.M. (1986): Brief overview of the physical oceanography.— In:Hurdle, B. G. (ed.), The Nordic Seas, 103–128, New York (Springer)Google Scholar
  27. Kluge, G. A. (1975): Bryozoa of the northern seas of the USSR.— 711.pp., New Dehli (Amerind. Publishing Co.)Google Scholar
  28. Koltun, V. M. (1959): Corneosiliceous sponges of the northern and far eastern seas of the USSR.—Keys for the identifications of the fauna of the USSR published by the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, (Akad. NAUK USSR)67, 235 p., Moskow-Leningrad. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  29. Koltun, V. M. (1964): Sponges from the Antarctic. 1. Tetraxonida and Cornacuspongida. In: Biological results of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition 1955/1958,2 Issled. Faunei Morei, 6–131, Moskow & LeningradGoogle Scholar
  30. Koltun, V. M. (1966): Four rayed sponges of the North and Far eastern Seas of the USSR (Order Tetraxonida).—Akad. NAUK USSR90, 107 pp., Moskow & Leningrad. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Koltun, V. M. (1967): Glass sponges of the Northern and Far Eastern Seas of the USSR.—Akad. NAUK USSR94, 124 pp., Moskow & Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. —(1970): Sponges of the Arctic and the Antarctic: A faunistic review.—Sym. Zool. Soc. London,25, 285–297, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Lambe, L. M. (1896): Sponges from the Atlantic Coast of Canada. —Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., Sec.6, 183–211, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  34. — (1900): Catalogue of the recent marine sponges of Canada and Alaska.—Ottawa Naturalist,14/9, 153–172, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  35. Le Bas, M. J., Le Maitre, R. W., Streckeisen, A. &Zanettin, B. (1986): A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram.—J. Petrol.27, 745–750, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Lees, A. &Buller, A. T. (1972): Modern temperate-water and warm-water shelf carbonate sediments contrasted.—Marine Geology,13, M67-M73, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lubinsky, I. (1980): marine bivalve molluscs of the Canadian central and eastern Arctic: Faunal composition and zoogeography. —Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Bull.,207, 1–111, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  38. Lundbeck, W. (1902): Porifera. Homorrhaphidae and Heterorrhaphidae, —The Danish Ingolf-Expedition,6/1, 105 pp., Hagerup (Kopenhagen)Google Scholar
  39. — (1905): Porifera. Desmacidonidae (pars.).—The Danish Ingolf-Expedition,6/2, 219 pp., Hagerup (Kopenhagen)Google Scholar
  40. — (1909): The Porifera of East Greenland.—Meddr. om Grønland,29, 423–464, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  41. — (1910): Desmacidonidae (pars.).—The Danish Ingolf-Expedition,6/3, 124 pp., Hagerup (Kopenhagen)Google Scholar
  42. Lutze, G. F. &Altenbach, A. V. (1987):Rupertina stabilis (Wallich), eine hochangepaßte, filtrierende Benthos-Foraminifere. —Ber. Sonderforschungsber. 313,6, 31–46, KielGoogle Scholar
  43. Marenzeller, E. (1886): Poriferen, Anthozoen, Ctenophoren und Würmer von Jan Mayen.—Die Österreichische Polarstation Jan Mayen, Beobacht. Ergeb.,3, 9–14, WienGoogle Scholar
  44. Merejkowsky, C. (1878): Les Éponges de la Mer Blanche.—Mem. Acad. Imper. Scienc. St. Petersbourg.—26/7, 7.Ser., 51 pp., St. PetersbourgGoogle Scholar
  45. Nelson, C.S., Hydon, F.M., Keane, S.L., Leask, W.L. &Gordon, D.P. (1988): Application of bryozoan zoarial growth-form studies in facies analysis of non-tropical carbonate deposits in New Zealand.—Sed. Geology, 60, 301–322, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nordgaard, O. (1918): Bryozoa from the Arctic Regions.—Tromsø Museum Årshefter,40/1, 1–99, TromsøGoogle Scholar
  47. Ockelmann, W.K. (1958): The zoology of east Greenland—marine Lamellibranchiata.—Meddr. om Grønland,107/7, 1–256, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  48. Oschmann, W. (1990): Dropstones—rocky mini-islands in high-latitude pelagic soft substrate environments.—Senckenbergiana marit.,21/1–4, 55–75, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  49. Oschmann, W. (1991): Ecology and bathymetry of the Late Quaternary shelly macrobenthos from bathyal and abyssal areas of the Norwegian Sea.—Senckenbergiana marit.,21/5–6, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  50. Piepenburg, D. (1988): Zur Zusammensetzung der Bodenfauna in der westlichen Fram Straße.—Ber. Polarforschung,52, 1–117, BremerhavenGoogle Scholar
  51. Powell, N.A. (1968): Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of Arctic Canada—J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada,25/11, 2269–2320, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  52. Rasmussen, B. N. (1965): On taxonomy and biology of the north Atlantic species of the asteroid genusHenricia Gray.—Medd. Danm. Fiskeri. Havunders. N.S.,4/7, 157–213, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  53. Ryland, J.S. (1963): Systematics and biological studies on Polyzoa (Bryozoa) from western Norway.—Sarsia,14, 1–59, BergenGoogle Scholar
  54. Schmitt, M., Botz, R. & Faber, E. (1991): Ultrasonic vacuun degassing of water for methane extraction.—Analytical Chemistry (in press)Google Scholar
  55. Schopf, T. J. M. (1969): Paleoecology of ectoprocts (bryozoans), —J. Paleont.43, 234–244, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  56. Schulze, F.E. (1900): Die Hexactinelliden.—Fauna Arctica,1 (Lfg. 1), 86–108, Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  57. — (1903):Caulophacus arcticus (Armauer Hansen) undCalycosoma gracilem F.E. Sch. nov.spec.—Abh. K. preuss. Akad. Wiss.,1903, 1–22, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  58. Stach, L. W. (1936): Correlation of zoarial growth form with habitat.—J. Geol.44, 60–66, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steenstrup, E. &Tendal, O.S. (1982): The genusThenea (Porifera, Demospongia, Choristida) in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters; an annotated key.—Sarsia:67, 259–268, BergenGoogle Scholar
  60. Swift, J.H. (1986): The Arctic waters.—In:Hurdle, B.G. (ed.), The Nordic Seas, 129–154, Springer Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Taylor, G.I. (1923): Experiments on the motion of solid bodies in rotation fluids.—Proc. Roy. Soc. London, B., Biol. Sci.,104A, 213–218, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor, P.D. (1979): The inference extrazooidal feeding currents in fossil bryozoan colonies.—Lethaia,12, 47–56, OsloGoogle Scholar
  63. Tendal, O.S. (1970): Sponges from Jörgen Brönlund Fjord, North Greenland.—Meddr. om Grönland,184/7, 1–14, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  64. — (1979): Sponges of Jan Mayen.—Astarte,12, 53–55, TromsøGoogle Scholar
  65. Thiede, J. &Hempel, G. (1991): Die Expedition ARKTIS-VII/1 mit FS “Polarstern” 1990.—Ber. Polarforschung,80, 1–137, BremerhavenGoogle Scholar
  66. Thorson, G. (1958): The Godthaab expedition 1928: Scaphopoda, Placophora, Solenogastres, Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Lamellibranchiata.— Medd. Grønland,81/2, 117pp, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  67. van Wagoner, N.A., Mudie, P.J., Cole, F.E. &Daborn, G. (1989): Siliceous sponge communities, biological zonation, and Recent sea-level change on the Arctic margin: Ice Island results.— Can. J. Earth Sci.,26, 2341–2355, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  68. Vinje, T. (1985): The physical environment of the western Barents Sea: Drift, composition, morphology and distribution of the sea ice fields in the Barents Sea.—Norsk. Polarinst. Skr.,179C, 1–26, OsloGoogle Scholar
  69. Vosmaer, G. C. J. (1885): The Sponges of the “Willem Barents” Expedition 1880 and 1881.—Bijdr. Dierk.,12, 1–47, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  70. Wallrabe-Adams, H. J. (1991): Submarine Aschelagen bei Vesterisbank (Grönlandsee).—IN:Thiede, J. & Hempel, G. (Hrsg.), Die Expedition ARKTIS-VII/1 mit FS “Polarstern” 1990, Ber. Polarforschung,80, 82–86, BremerhavenGoogle Scholar
  71. Winston, J. E. (1981): Feeding Behavior of Modern Bryozoans— IN:Broadhead, T.W. (ed.): Lophophorates, Notes for a short course. pp. 21, University of Tennessee, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  72. — (1978): Polypide morphology and feeding behavior in marine ectoprocts—Bull. Mar. Sci.28, 1–31, MiamiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut für Paläontologie, Universität Erlangen 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Henrich
    • 1
  • Martin Hartmann
    • 2
  • Joachim Reitner
    • 3
  • Priska Schäfer
    • 2
  • André Freiwald
    • 1
  • Stefan Steinmetz
    • 5
  • Peter Dietrich
    • 4
  • Jörn Thiede
    • 1
  1. 1.GEOMAR-Forschungszentrum für marine GeowissenschaftenKiel 14
  2. 2.Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut der Universität KielKiel 1
  3. 3.Institut für PaläontologieFreie Universität BerlinBerlin 33
  4. 4.Bergakademie Freiberg-Sektion GeowissenschaftenWB HydrogeologieFreiberg
  5. 5.Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und MeeresforschungBremerhaven

Personalised recommendations