A study was performed to explore the effects of supplemental intake of various marine oils known to be part of the Eskimo diet. Healthy men and women (134) were randomly selected to consume 15 mL/d of oil from blubber of seal, cod liver, seal/cod liver, blubber of Minke whale, or no oil for ten weeks. Total cholesterol was unchanged in the oil groups, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased 7% in the seal/cod liver oil (CLO) group (P<0.05) and 11% in the whale oil group (P<0.005). Triacylglycerol was significantly reduced in the CLO group only. The concentration of prothrombin fragment 1+2 was reduced 25% (P<0.05) after whale oil supplementation. No change in fibrinogen or factor VIIc was detected. Tumor necrosis factor generation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood was 30% reduced after whale oil (P<0.05), but was unaffected by intake of seal or CLO. The LPS-induced tissue factor activity in monocytes was reduced to a significant degree only in the seal/CLO group (34%) and whale oil group (35%) (P<0.05). The most dramatic change in thromboxane B2 in LPS-stimulated blood was seen after whale oil intake with 44% reduction (P<0.01). Supplementation of a regular diet with a combination of seal oil and CLO and especially with whale oil seems to have beneficial effects on several products thought to be associated with cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases.
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cod liver oil
coefficient of variation
factor VII coagulant activity
prothrombin fragment 1+2
high density lipoprotein
platelet activating factor
platelet derived growth factor
polyunsaturated fatty acids
tumor necrosis factor
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Østerud, B., Elvevoll, E., Barstad, H. et al. Effect of marine oils supplementation on coagulation and cellular activation in whole blood. Lipids 30, 1111–1118 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02536611
- Tissue Factor
- Minke Whale
- Harp Seal
- Tissue Factor Activity
- Tumor Necrosis Factor Generation