Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 143–158 | Cite as

Geopotential resonance in a Landsat orbit

  • Peter Dunn
Article

Abstract

When the orbit of the Landsat I spacecraft was liberated to natural forces, the loss of observations to the remote sensing community was balanced by a modest gain for geodesy. The orbit’s long ground-track repeat period of eighteen days gives rise to a shallow resonance with fourteenth, twenty-eighth and forty-second order terms in the geopotential. A single continuous span of twenty-four days of Unified S-Band tracking data, collected at a single station in 1976, has been analyzed to define constraints on the dominant resonance terms of these orders and of fourteenth-order fringe resonance effects depending on the eccentricitye≈.002. Tracking observations from other stations collected during 1974 and 1975 gave essentially the same results, which provided error estimates for the lumped resonance coefficients. The application of the resonance model can considerably improve the definition and prediction of the Landsat 1 orbit. Direct numerical estimates of the influence coefficients in the resonance constraint equations were made to confirm the accuracy of analytical expressions which allow the equations to be applied to geopotential fields of arbitrarily high degree and order. Several recently derived gravity fields were tested against the Landsat resonance constraints and their comparative agreement is discussed.

Keywords

Landsat Gravity Field Gravity Model Resonance Effect Influence Coefficient 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. R.R. ALLAN: “Resonance Effects Due to the Longitude Dependence of the Gravitational Field of a Rotating Primary”, Plan. Space Sci., Vol. 15, pp. 53–76, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. R.R. ALLAN: “Satellite Resonance with Longitude-Dependent Gravity-III. Inclination Changes for Close Satellites”, Plan. Space Sci., Vol. 21, pp. 205–225, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. R.J. ANDERLE: “Observations of Resonance Effects on Satellite Orbits Arising from the Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Order Gravitational Coefficients”, J.G.R., Vol. 70, No. 10, pp. 2453–2458, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. R.J. ANDERLE and S.J. SMITH: “Observations of Twenty-Seventh and Twenty-Eighth Order Gravity Coefficients Based on Doppler Observations”, J. Astron. Sc., Vol. XV, No. 1, pp. 1–4, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. G. BALMINO, C. REIGBER and B. MOYNOT: “The GRIM-2 Earth Gravity Field Model”. Deutsche Geodatische Kommission, Reihe A, Heft No. 86, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. B.C. DOUGLAS and J.G. MARSH: “GEOS-2 and 13th Order Terms of the Geopotential”, Celestial Mechanics 1, pp. 479–490, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. A.J. FUCHS and R.A. STRAFELLA: “ERTS Orbit Selection Analysis”. NASA X-832-70-144, April 1970.Google Scholar
  8. E.M. GAPOSCHKIN: “Gravity-field Determination from Laser Observations”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A. 284, 515–527, May 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. R.H. GOODING: “Lumped Fifteenth Order Harmonics in the Geopotential”, Nature, Vol. 231, pp. 168–169, June 1971.Google Scholar
  10. H. HILLER: “Geophysical Interpretation of the Orbit of 1971-18B”. RAE Tech. Rept. 787, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. L.G. JACCHIA: “Revised Static Models of the Thermosphere and Exosphere with Empirical Temperature Profiles”. S.A.O. Special Report 332, Cambridge, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. W.M. KAULA: “Theory of Satellite Geodesy”. Chapter 3, Blaisdell, 1966.Google Scholar
  13. D.G. KING-HELE, D.M.C. WALKER and R.H. GOODING: “Geopotential Harmonics of Order 15 and Odd Degree from Analysis of Resonant Orbits”, Plan. Space Sci., Vol. 23, pp. 1239–1256, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D.G. KING-HELE, D.M.C. WALKER and R.H. GOODING: “Evaluation of Fourteenth-Order Harmonics in the Geopotential”, Plan. Space Sci., Vol. 27, pp. 1–18, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. J. KLOKOCNIK: “Changes in the Inclination of a Close Earth Satellite due to Orbital Resonances”. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech., Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 287–295, 1976.Google Scholar
  16. J. KLOKOCNIK: “Fourteenth and Twenty-Eighth Order Lumped Coefficients from the changes of the Orbital Inclination of the Interkosmos 9 and 10 Satellites”, Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech., Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 291–299, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. F.J. LERCH, S.M. KLOSKO, R.E. LAUBSCHER and C.A. WAGNER: “Gravity Model Improvement Using GEOS 3 (GEM 9 and 10)”. J.G.R., Vol. 84, No. B8, July 1979.Google Scholar
  18. NASA: “Design Study Specifications for ERTS-A and B”. GSFC 5-701-P-3, October 1969.Google Scholar
  19. NASA: “STDN Validation and Evaluation Report”. Tracking Data Evaluation Section, GSFC, DEO-72-244, October 1972.Google Scholar
  20. “NASA Directory of Observation Station Locations”. Vol. I, Operational Orbit Support Branch, GSFC, November 1973.Google Scholar
  21. B. PUTNEY: “General Theory for Dynamic Satellite Geodesy”. National Geodetic Satellite Program Part I, Section 5.4.1, pp. 319–334, NASA SP-365, 1977.Google Scholar
  22. C. REIGBER and G. BALMINO: “Fourteenth Order Harmonics from Analysis of Mean Longitude Variations of Resonant Satellites”. Paper 1.2.5, COSPAR XIX, Philadelphia, June 1976.Google Scholar
  23. W.P. VARSON: “Functional Description of Unified S-Band Systems and Integration into the Manned Space Flight Network”. Proc. Apollo USB Tech. Conf., NASA SP-87, pp. 3–12, July 1965.Google Scholar
  24. C.A. WAGNER: “The Accuracy of Goddard Earth Models”. NASA X-921-76-187, June 1976.Google Scholar
  25. C.A. WAGNER and S.M. KLOSKO: “Gravitational Harmonics from Shallow Resonant Orbits”, Celestial Mechanics 16, pp. 143–163, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. C.A. WAGNER, F.J. LERCH, J.E. BROWND and J.S. RICHARDSON: “Improvements in the Geopotential Derived from Satellite and Surface Data (GEM 7 and 8)”. J.G.R., Vol. 82, No. 5, February 1977.Google Scholar
  27. C.A. WAGNER and O.L. COLOMBO: “Gravitational Spectra from Direct Measurements”, J.G.R., Vol. 84, No. B9, pp. 4699–4712, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. D.M.C. WALKER: “Upper Atmosphere Rotation Rate from Analysis of the Orbital Inclination of Explorer I”. Plan. Space Sci., Vol. 23, pp. 1573–1579, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bureau Central de L’Association Internationale de Géodésie 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Dunn
    • 1
  1. 1.EG & G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc.Riverdale

Personalised recommendations