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Der Schmerz

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 171–181 | Cite as

Relaxation und Biofeedback in der Behandlung von chronischem Kopfschmerz bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

Ein Überblick
  • B. Kröner-Herwig
  • U. Ehlert
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Vor etwa 10 Jahren wurden die ersten Studien zur psychologischen Therapie chronischer Kopfschmerzen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen im angloamerikanischen Raum veröffentlicht. Die Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über die bis heute vorliegenden Untersuchungen, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf Entspannungstherapie und Biofeedback liegt. Entspannungsverfahren, vor allem die progressive Muskelrelaxation, gehören zu den Interventionen, die zuerst und am gründlichsten erprobt wurden. Mittlerweile gibt es zum Einsatz von Entspannung bei Migräne und Spannungskopfschmerz im Kindesalter 12 gut kontrollierte Gruppenstudien, die in der Arbeit vorgestellt werden. In den Untersuchungen werden in der Regel gute Erfolge beobachtet. Insbesondere die Kopfschmerzfrequenz wird zumeist in klinisch relevantem Ausmaß reduziert. Die Verbesserungen sind über längere Zeit stabil. Für die Behandlung mit Biofeedback (insbesondere EMG- und Handtemperatur-feedback) sprechen bislang nur die positiven Ergebnisse aus Einzelfallstudien und weniger gut kontrollierten Gruppenuntersuchungen. Auch wird Biofeedback sehr oft nur in Kombination mit anderen therapeutischen Verfahren eingesetzt, so daß eine abschließende Wertung noch nicht möglich ist. Insgesamt lassen die berichteten Untersuchungen den Schluß zu, daß die Anwendung von Relaxationstraining für Kinder ab 8 Jahren als Therapiemethode in der Praxis empfohlen werden kann. Weitere Forschung ist vonnöten, um die relative Effizienz der psychologischen Therapien auch im Vergleich zu medizinischen Interventionen bestimmen zu können. Offene Forschungsfragen werden aufgezeigt und Empfehlungen für eine intensivierte und systematisierte Kopfschmerztherapieforschung bei Kindern gegeben.

Relaxation and biofeedback in the treatment of chronic headache in children and adolescents. A status report

Abstract

The first studies on psychological treatment of pediatric headache appeared about 10 years ago; most of them were published in Anglo-American journals. This review focuses on relaxation training and biofeedback (EMG and hand temperature feedback) as the psychological interventions most often used in pediatric migraine and tension headaches. The results of randomized group studies, which were mostly well-controlled, on the efficacy of relaxation therapy (n=12) now allow a rather optimistic prognosis on the feasibility of this intervention. Most studies demonstrate clinically relevant reductions of headache frequency after training. Biofeedback studies are methodologically less well controlled and although positive effects have been observed, e.g., in single case studies, the relative usefulness of biofeedback has yet to be determined. Deficits in research on the psychological treatment of headache in children and adolescents are described, new research issues are discussed and recommendations for more systematic research are given.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Kröner-Herwig
    • 1
  • U. Ehlert
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung Klinische PsychologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorf

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