Bulletin Géodésique

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 475–493 | Cite as

Systematic errors in levelings of mountainous areas

  • S. V. Enman
  • V. B. Enman


Sources of errors in the precise leveling influencing the results of measurements especially strongly in mountains are considered in this study. Data are given on new error sources, including (1) the difference in temperatures of invar bands of rods and of the air; and (2) displacements of rock bench marks during diurnal variations in temperature of rocks. The ranges of possible total systematic error in leveding are estimated.


Systematic Error Test Area Temperature Correction Cloudy Weather Sunny Weather 
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  1. T.J. KUKKAMÄKI, 1939: Formeln und Tabellen zur Berechnung der nivellitischen Refraktion. Veroffentlichungen des Finnischen Geodätischen Institutes. Helsinki, 27.Google Scholar
  2. J.C. SAVAGE and J.P. CHURCH, 1974: Evidence for postearthquake slip in the Fairview Peak, Dixie Valley, and Rainbow mountain fault areas of Nevada. Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer., 64 (3), pp. 687–698.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bureau Central de L’Association Internationale de Géodésie 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. V. Enman
    • 1
  • V. B. Enman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physics of the EarthAcademy of ScienceMoscowUSSR

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