Advertisement

Lipids

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 971–975 | Cite as

Fatty acid composition of danish margarines and shortenings, with special emphasis ontrans fatty acids

  • Lars Ovesen
  • Torben Leth
  • Kirsten Hansen
Article

Abstract

Trans fatty acids from hydrogenated vegetable and marine oils could be as hypercholesterolemic and atherogenic as saturated fatty acids. Hence, it is important to know the fatty acid composition in major food contributors, e.g., margarines and shortenings. In 1992 margarines were examined, and in 1995 brands covering the entire Danish market were examined. Significant amounts oftrans-18∶1 were found only in hard margarines (mean: 4.2±2.8%) and shortenings (mean: 6.8 ±3.1%), whereas the semisoft and soft margarines contained substantially lesstrans-18∶1 in 1995 than in 1992. Where marine oils had been used to a larger degree the meantrans-monoenoic content was about 15%, of which close to 50% was made up of long-chain (C20 and C22)trans fatty acids. A note-worthy decrease in the content oftrans-18∶1 had occurred for the semisoft margarines, from 9.8±6.1% in 1992 to 1.2±2.2% in 1995. Calculated from sales figures, the supply oftrans-18∶1 plus saturated fatty acids from margarines had decreased over this three-year period by 1.4 g/day, which has been replaced bycis monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords

Saturated Fatty Acid Total Fatty Acid Trans Fatty Acid Total Saturated Fatty Acid Soft Margarine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

GLC

gas-liquid chromatography

HDL

high density lipoprotein

LA

lauric acid

LC

long-chain fatty acids (C20 or longer; saturated and unsaturated)

LDL

low density lipoprotein

LI

lmoleic acid

MY

myristic acid

PA

palmitic acid

TFA

trans fatty acids

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sommerfeld, M. (1983)Trans Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Natural Products and Processed Foods,Prog. Lipid Res. 22, 221–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sampugna, J., Pallansch, L.A., Genig, M.G., and Keeney, M. (1982) Rapid Analysis oftrans Fatty Acids on SP-2340 Glass Capillary Columns,J. Chrom. 249, 245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    almendingen, K., Jordal, O., Kierulf, P., Sandstad, B., and Pedersen, J.I. (1995) Effects of Partially Hydrogenated Fish Oil, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil, and Butter on Serum Lipoproteins and Lp(a) in Men,J. Lip. Res. 36, 1370–1384.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Judd, J.T., Clevidence, B.A., Muesing, R.A., Wittes, J., Sunkin, M.E., and Podczasy, J.J. (1994) Dietarytrans Fatty Acids: Effects of Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins of Healthy Men and Women,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 861–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mensink, R.P., and Katan, M.B. (1990) Effect oftrans Fatty Acids on High-Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Subjects,N. Engl. J. Med. 323, 439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mensink, R.P., and Katan, M.B. (1992) Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins,Arterioscler. Thromb. 12, 911–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mensink, R.P., Zock, P.L., Katan, M.B., and Hornstra, G. (1992) Effect of Dietarycis andtrans Fatty Acids on Serum Lipoprotein(a) Levels in Humans,J. Lip. Res. 33:1493–1501.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nestel, P., Noakes, M., Belling, B., McArthur, R., Clifton, P., Janus, E., and Abbey, M. (1992) Plasma Lipoprotein and Lp(a) Changes with Substitution of Eleadic Acid for Oleic Acid in the Diet,J. Lip. Res. 33, 1029–1036.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Troisi, R., Willett, W.C., and Weiss, S.T. (1992)Trans-Fatty Acid Intake in Relation to Serum Lipid Concentrations in Adult Men,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 1019–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zock, P.L., and Katan, M.B. (1992) Hydrogenation Alternatives: Effects oftrans Fatty Acids and Stearic Acid Versus Linoleic Acid on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans,J. Lip. Res. 33, 399–410.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gillman, M.W., Cupples, A., Gagnon, D., Posner, B.M., Ellison, R.C., and Castelli, W.P. (1995) Margarine Intake and Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease,Circulation 91, 925.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kromhout, D., Menotti, A., Bloemberg, B., Aravanis, C., Blackburn, H., Buzina, R., Dontas, A.S., Fidanza, F., Giampaoli, S., and Jansen, A. (1995) Dietary Saturated andtrans Fatty Acids and Cholesterol and 25-Year Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease: The Seven Countries Study,Prev. Med. 24, 308–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willett, W.C., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Colditz, G.A., Speizer, F.E., Rosner, B.A., Sampson, L.A., and Henneckens, C.H. (1993) Intake oftrans Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women,Lancet 341, 581–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Report of the Expert Panel ontrnas Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease (1995)Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 655S–708S.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Trans Fatty Acids,The Report of the British Nutrition Foundation Task Force, British Nutrition Foundation, London, 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stender, S., Dyerberg, J., Hølmer, G., Ovesen, L., and Sandström, B. (1995) The Influence oftrans Fatty Acids on Health: A Report from the Danish Nutrition Council,Clin. Sci. 88, 375–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mattson, F.H., and Grundy, S.M. (1985) Comparison of Effects of Dietary Saturated, Monounsaturated, and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Man,J. Lip. Res. 26, 194–202.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zock, P.L., de Vries, J.H.M., and Katan, M.B. (1994) Impact of Myristic Acid Versus Palmitic Acid on Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in Healthy Women and Men,Arterioscler. Thromb. 14, 567–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marckman, P., Jespersen, J., Leth, T., and Sandström, B. (1991) Effect of Fish Diet Versus Meat Diet on Blood Lipids, Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Healthy Young Men,J. Intern. Med. 229, 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E., van Oosten, H.J., and Vasconcellos, M.A. (1996) Analysis ofcis- andtrans-Fatty Acid Isomers in Hydrogenated and Refined Vegetable Oils by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 275–282.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nikolova-Damyanova, B. (1992) inAdvances in Lipid Methology—One (Christie, W.W., ed.) Chapter 6, The Oily Press, Ltd., Ayr.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Emken, E.A. (1994) Dispelling Misconceptions with Stble Isotopes,INFORM 5, 906–912.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Precht, D., and Molkentin, J. (1995)Trans Fatty Acids: Implications for Health, Analytical Methods, Incidence in Edible Fats and Intake,Nahrung 39, 343–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aro, A., Kardinaal, A.F.M., Salminen, I., Kark, J.D., Riemersma, R.A., Delgade-Rodriguez, M., Gomez-Aracena, J., Huttunen, J.K., Kohlmeier, L., Martin, B.C., Martin-Moreno, J.M., Mazaev, V.P., Ringstad, J., Thamm, M., van't Veer, P., and F.J. Kok, (1995) Adipose Tissue Isomerictrans Fatty Acids and Risks of Myocardial Infarction in Nine Countries: The EU-RAMIC Study,Lancet 345, 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roberts, T.L., Wood, D.A., Riemersma, R.A., Gallagher, P.J., and F.C. Lampe, (1995)Trans Isomers of Linoleic Acids in Adipose Tissue and Sudden Cardiac Death,Lancet 345, 278–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ovesen, L., and Leth, T. (1995)Trans Fatty Acids: Time for Legislative Action?,Nutr. Food Sci. 3, 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bonanome, A., and Grundy, S.M. (1988) Effect of Dietary Stearic Acid on Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Levels,N. Engl. J. Med. 318, 1244–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gurr, M.I. (1983)Trans Fatty Acids: Metabolic and Nutritional Significance,Int. Dairy Fed. Doc. 166, 5–17.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Druckrey, F., Høy, C.-E., and Hølmer, G. (1985) Fatty Acid Composition of Danish Margarines,Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 87, 350–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bayard, C.C., and Wolff, R.L. (1995)Trans-18∶1 Acids in French Tub Margarines and Shortenings: Recent Trends,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 1485–1489.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andersen, N.L., Fagt, S., Groth, M.V., Hartkopp, H.B., Møller, A., Ovesen, L., and Warming, D.L. (1996)Dietary Intakes for the Danish Population, 1995, The National Food Agency of Denmark, Soborg (publication No. 235).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Ovesen
    • 1
  • Torben Leth
    • 1
  • Kirsten Hansen
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Food Chemistry and NutritionNational Food AgencySøborgDenmark
  2. 2.Aarhus LandsdelslaboratoriumAarhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations