Reducing the crystallization temperature of biodiesel by winterizing methyl soyate

  • Inmok Lee
  • Lawrence A. Johnson
  • Earl G. Hammond


Methyl soyate, made from typical soybean varieties, has a crystallization onset temperature (T co) of 3.7°C and, as a biodiesel fuel, is prone to crystallization of its high-melting saturated methyl esters at cold operating temperatures. Removal of saturated esters by winterization was assessed as a means of reducing theT co of methyl soyate. Winterizing neat methyl esters of typical soybean oil produced aT co of −7.1°C, but this was not an efficient way of removing saturated methyl esters because of the low yield (26%) of the separated liquid fraction. However, aT co of −6.5°C with 86% yield was obtained by winterizing the neat methyl esters of a low-palmitate soybean oil; aT co of −5.8°C with 77% yield was obtained by winterizing methyl esters of normal soybean oil diluted with hexane.

Key Words

Biodiesel crystallization differential scanning calorimetry low-palmitate soybean oil methyl soyate soydiesel winterization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    National SoyDiesel Development Board.Biodiesel Alert 1:9 (1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Engler, C.R., W.A. Lepori, L.A. Johnson, and C.M. Yarbrough, Processing Requirements for Plant Oils as Alternative Diesel Fuels, inLiquid Fuels from Renewable Resources, edited by J.S. Cundiff, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, 1992, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murayama, T., Evaluating Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel,INFORM 5:1138–1145 (1994).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunn, R.O., M.W. Shockley, and M.O. Bagby, Improving Low Temperature Flow Performance of Biodiesel Fuels and Blends,5:529 (1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fosseen Manufacturing and Development, Ltd., Evaluation of Methyl Soyate/Diesel Blend in a DDC 6V-92TA Engine, ORTECH Final Report No. 93-E14-21/93-E14-36, ORTECH International, Mississauga, Ontario, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee, I., L.A. Johnson, and E.G. Hammond, Use of Branched-Chain Esters to Reduce the Crystallization Temperature of Biodiesel,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72:1155–1160 (1995).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    List, G.R., and T.L. Mounts, Partially Hydrogenated-Winterized Soybean Oil, inHandbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, edited by D.R. Erickson, E.H. Pryde, O.L. Brekke, T.L. Mounts, and R.A. Falb, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, 1980, pp. 193–214.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weiss, T.J., Salad Oil Manufacture and Control,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 44:146A, 148A, 186A, and 197A (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neumunz, G.M., Old and New in Winterizing,55:397A-398A (1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inmok Lee
    • 1
  • Lawrence A. Johnson
    • 1
  • Earl G. Hammond
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Crops Utilization Research and Department of Food Science and Human NutritionIowa State UniversityAmes

Personalised recommendations