Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society

, Volume 73, Issue 12, pp 1669–1673 | Cite as

Emulsifying capacity of coconut proteins as a function of salt, phosphate, and temperature

  • K. S. Kwon
  • K. C. Rhee


Nitrogen solubilities of proteins in defatted coconut flour (CF) and coconut protein concentrate (CPC), prepared by ultrafiltration, were determined in water and 2% NaCl. The effect of temperature, disodium phosphate, and salt on emulsifying capacities (EC) of these products also were investigated by a model system. Between pH 4.0 and 5.0, nitrogen solubilities of CF and CPC in water were lower than those in salt solutions. In salt solutions, the nitrogen solubility was lowest at pH 1, and increased steadily as pH increased from 3.0 to 6.0. CF had higher EC values than CPC at all salt and phosphate levels. Additionally, increased phosphate level generally increased the EC at both salt levels, but these increases were not significant at 0.9% phosphate level as compared to the 0.7% phosphate level (P<0.05). Although the emulsifying temperature of 40°C showed higher EC values than both 60 and 80°C at all salt and phosphate levels, the overall temperature effect was not significant (P>0.05). However, EC decreased significantly with the addition of salt at all phosphate levels.

Key Words

Coconut protein coconut protein concentrate emulsifying capacity nitrogen solubility 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McWatters, K.H., and M.R. Holmes, Influence of Moist Heat on Solubility and Emulsification Properties of Soy and Peanut Flours,J. Food Sci. 44:774 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Turgeon, S.L., S.F. Gauthier, and P. Paquin, Emulsifying Property of Whey Peptide Fractions as a Function of pH and Ionic Strength,J. Food Sci. 57:601 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aoki, H., and H. Nagano, Studies on Emulsifying Properties of Soybean Proteins,J. Jap. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 22:320 (1975).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Damodaran, S., and J. E. Kinsella, inFood Protein Deterioration: Mechanisms and Functionality, edited by J.P. Cherry, ACS Symposium Series, No. 206, Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 327.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davide, C.L., C.N. Peralta, I.G. Sarmago, and G.J. Pagsuberon, A New Technology for Blue Cheese Production from Coconut-Skimmed Powder Blends,Phil. J. Coconut Studies X(1):51 (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Venktesh, A., and V. Prakash, Functional Properties of the Total Proteins of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seed-Effect of Physical and Chemical Treatments,J. Agric. Food Chem. 41:18 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    AOAC,Official Methods of Analysis, 4th edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C., 1984.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chobert, J.M., C. Bertrand-Herb, and M.G. Nicolas, Solubility and Emulsifying Properties of Caseins and Whey Proteins Modified Enzymatically by Trypsin,J. Agric. Food Chem. 36:883 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sheen, S.J., and V.T. Sheen, Effect of Chemical and Enzymatic Degradation on the Functional Properties of Fraction-1-Protein,J. Agric. Food. Chem. 36:445 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Webb, N.B., J.F. Ivey, H.B. Craig, V.A. Jones, and R.J. Monroe, The Measurement of Emulsifying Capacity by Electrical Resistance,J. Food Sci. 35:501 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    SAS,SAS User's Guide: Statistics, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duncan, D.B., Multiple Range and Multiple F TestsBiometrics 11:1 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Samson, S.J.A.S., R.N. Khaund, C.M. Cater, and K.F. Mattil, Extractability of Coconut Proteins,J. Food Sci. 36:725 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kinsella, J.E., Milk Proteins: Physicochemical and Functional Properties,CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 21:197 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kinsella, J.E., Functional Properties of Soy Proteins,J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56:242 (1979).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rhee, K.C.,Peanuts (Groundnuts) in New Protein Foods, edited by A.M. Altschul and H.L. Wilcke, Academic Press, New York, 1985, pp. 359.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knipe, C.L., D.G. Olson, and R.E. Rust, Effect of Selected Inorganic Phosphate Levels and Reduced Sodium Chloride Levels on Protein Solubility and pH of Meat Emulsion,J. Food Sci. 50:1010 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dagorn-Scaviner, C., J. Gueguen, and J. Lefebvre, Emulsifying Properties of Pea Globulins as Related to Their Adsorption Behavior,52:335 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brotsky, E., and C.W. Everson,Polyphosphate Use in Meat and Other Muscle Foods, presented at the 24th Meat Ind. Res. Conf. Am. Meat Sci. Assoc. and Am. Meat Inst. Foundation, Chicago, Vol. 34, 1972, p. 107.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Templeton, H.L., and H.H. Sommer, Some Observations on Processed Cheese,J. Dairy Sci. 13:203 (1930).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scharpf, L.G., The Use of Phosphates in Cheese Processing, in Symposium: Phosphates in Food Processing, Avi Publishing Co., Westport, 1971, pp. 120–157.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin, M.J.Y., E.S. Humbert, and F. Sosulski, Certain Functional Properties of Sunflower Meal Products,J. Food Sci. 39:368 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McWatters, K.H., and J.P. Cherry, Emulsification, Foaming, and Protein Solubility Properties of Defatted Soybean, Peanut, Field Pea, and Pecan Flours42: 1444 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Kwon
    • 1
  • K. C. Rhee
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Protein R&D CenterTexas A&M UniversityCollege Station

Personalised recommendations