Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 154, Issue 5, pp 487–494 | Cite as

Sleep and metabolic rate in the little penguin,Eudyptula minor

  • C. D. Stahel
  • D. Megirian
  • S. C. Nicol
Article

Summary

The effects of sleep upon metabolic rate in the little penguin were examined at thermoneutral and low temperatures in day and night experiments.

Little penguins show similar electrophysiological indices of sleep to other birds. The amount of sleep increased at night due to increased frequency of sleep periods and decreased with cold exposure due to a reduction in the length of sleep periods.

Sleep was associated with a slight decrease (8%) in metabolic rate when compared to quiet wakefulness in all experimental conditions. This descrease, however, represents only a marginal reduction in daily energy costs. There would be a difference of only 2.4% in the hypothetical daily energy budget of a resting little penguin if it did not sleep at all.

Keywords

Metabolic Rate Cold Exposure Total Sleep Time Slow Wave Sleep Sleep Period 

Abbreviations

EEG

electroencephalogram

EMG

electromyogram

PS

paradoxical sleep

SWS

slow wave sleep

TST

total sleep time

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison T, Cicchetti DV (1976) Sleep in mammals: Ecological and constitutional correlates. Science 194:732–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison T, Van Twyver H (1970) The evolution of sleep. Nat Hist 79:56–65Google Scholar
  3. Aschoff J (1982) The circadian rhythm of body temperature as a function of body size. In: Taylor CR, Johansen K, Bolis L (eds) A companion to animal physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 173–188Google Scholar
  4. Berger RJ (1975) Bioenergetic functions of sleep and activity rhythms and their possible relevance to aging. Fed Proc 34:97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger RJ, Walker JM (1972) Sleep in the burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea). Behav Biol 7:183–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boersma PD (1976) An ecological and behavioural study of the galapagos penguin. Living Bird 15:43–93Google Scholar
  7. Brebbia DR, Altschuler KZ (1965) Oxygen consumption rate and electroencephalographic stage of sleep. Science 150:1621–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Croxall JP, Prince PA (1980) Food, feeding ecology and ecological segregation of seabirds at South Georgia. Biol J Linn Soc 14:103–131Google Scholar
  9. Goodman IJ (1974) The study of sleep in birds. In: Goodman IJ (ed) Birds: brain and behaviour. Academic Press, New York, pp 133–152Google Scholar
  10. Graf R (1980a) Diurnal changes of thermoregulatory functions in pigeons. I. Effector mechanism. Pflügers Arch 386:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Graf R (1980b) Diurnal changes of thermoregulatory functions in pigeons. II. Spinal thermosensitivity. Pflügers Arch 386:181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Graf H, Heller HC, Rautenberg W (1980) Thermoregulatory effector mechanism activity during sleep in pigeons. In: Szelenyi Z, Szekely M (eds) Advances in physiological sciences 32, Contributions to thermal physiology, Academiai Klado, Budapest Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 225–227Google Scholar
  13. Graf R, Heller HC, Sakaguchi S (1983) Slight warming of the spinal cord and the hypothalamus in the pigeon: effects on thermoregulation and sleep during the night. J Therm Biol 8:159–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grant GS, Whittow GC (1983) Metabolic cost of incubation in the laysan albatross and bonin petrel. Comp Biochem Physiol 74A:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haskell EH, Walker JM, Berger RJ (1979) Effects of cold stress on sleep of a hibernator, the golden mantled ground squirrel (C. lateralis). Physiol Behav 23:1119–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haskell EH, Palca JW, Walker JM, Berger RJ, Heller HC (1981) Metabolism and thermoregulation during stages of sleep in humans exposed to heat and cold. J Appl Physiol, Resp Environ Exercise Physiol 51:948–954Google Scholar
  17. Heller HC, Glotzbach SF (1977) Thermoregulation during sleep and hibernation. In: Robertshaw D (ed) Int Rev Physiol. vol 15, Environmental physiology II. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 147–188Google Scholar
  18. Hodgson A (1975) Some aspects of the ecology of the fairy penguinEudyptula minor novaehollandae (Forster) in southern Tasmania. PhD thesis, University of TasmaniaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hohtola E, Rintamäki H, Hissa R (1980) Shivering and ptiloerection as complementary cold defence responses in the pigeon during sleep and wakefulness. J Comp Physiol 136:77–81Google Scholar
  20. Jacobson A, Kales A, Lehmann D, Hoedemaker FS (1964) Muscle tonus in human subjects during sleep and dreaming. Exp Neurol 10:418–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Larochelle J, Delson J, Schmidt-Nielsen K (1982) Temperature regulation in the black vulture. Can J Zool 60:491–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murphy RC (1936) Oceanic birds of South America. American Museum of Natural History, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Necker R (1981) Thermoreception and temperature regulation in homeothermic vertebrates. In: Ottoson D (ed) Progress in sensory physiology, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  24. Ookawa T (1972) Avian wakefulness and sleep in the basis of recent electroencephalographic observations. Poultry Sci 51:1565–1574Google Scholar
  25. Parmeggiani PL (1980) Temperature regulation during sleep: a study in homeostasis. In: Orem J, Barnes CD (eds) Physiology in sleep. Academic Press, New York, pp 97–143Google Scholar
  26. Parmeggiani PL, Rabini C (1970) Sleep and environmental temperature. Arch Ital Biol 108:369–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Passmore R, Durnin JVGA (1955) Human energy expenditure. Physiol Rev 35:801–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Roussel B, Bittel J (1979) Thermogenesis and thermolysis during sleeping and waking in the rat. Pflügers Arch 383:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sakaguchi S, Glotzbach SF, Heller HC (1979) Influence of hypothalamic and ambient temperature on sleep in kangaroo rats. Am J Physiol 237:R80-R88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidek WR, Hoshino K, Schmidek M, Timo-Iaria C (1972) Influence of environmental temperature on the sleep wakefulness cycle in the rat. Physiol Behav 8:363–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Simon E, Simon-Opperman C, Hammel HT, Kaul R, Maggert J (1976) Effects of altering rostral brain stem temperature on temperature regulation in the Adelie penguin,Pygoscelis adeliae. Pflügers Arch 362:7–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snyder F (1966) Towards an evolutionary theory of dreaming. Am J Psychiatr 123:121–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Spurr EB (1975) Behaviour of the Adelie penguin chick. Condor 77:272–280Google Scholar
  34. Spurr EB (1978) Diurnal activity of Adelie penguinsPygoscelis adeliae at Cape Bird. Ibis 120:147–152Google Scholar
  35. Stahel CD, Nicol SC (1982) Temperature regulation in the little penguin,Eudyptula minor, in air and water. J Comp Physiol 148:93–100Google Scholar
  36. Stonehouse B (1960) The king penguinAptenodytes patagonica of South Georgia. I. Breeding behaviour and development. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey Scientific Reports No. 23, Colonia Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Stonehouse B (1967) The general biology and thermal balances of penguins. Adv Ecol Res 4:136–196Google Scholar
  38. Toutain P-L, Toutain C, Webster AJF, McDonald JD (1977) Sleep and activity, age and fatness, and the energy expenditure of confined sheep. Br J Nutr 38:445–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tymicz J, Narebski J, Jurkowlaniec E (1975) Circadian sleep-wakefulness rhythm of the starling. Sleep Res 4:146Google Scholar
  40. Van Twyver H, Allison T (1972) A polygraphic and behavioural study of sleep in the pigeon (Columba livia). Exp Neurol 35:138–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Zinderen Bakker EM (1971) A behavioural analysis of the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua Forster). In: Van Zinderen Bakker EM, Winterbottom JM, Dyer RA (eds) Marion and Prince Edward Islands. A.A., Balkema, Capetown, pp 251–272Google Scholar
  42. Walker JM, Berger RJ (1972) Sleep in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) Behav Biol 7:195–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Walker JM, Berger RJ (1980) Sleep as an adaptation for energy conservation functionally related to hibernation and shallow torpor. Prog Brain Res 53:255–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Walker JM, Walker LE, Palca JW, Berger RJ (1981) Nightly torpor in the ringed turtle dove: An extension of sleep. Acta Univ Carol-Biol 9:221–224Google Scholar
  45. Walker JM, Walker LE, Harris DV, Berger RJ (1983) Cessation of thermoregulation during REM sleep in the pocket mouse. Am J Physiol 244:R114-R118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Warham J (1958) The nesting of the little penguinEudyptula minor. Ibis 100:605–616Google Scholar
  47. Webb P, Hiestand M (1975) Sleep metabolism and age. J Appl Physiol 38:257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Westerterp K (1977) How rats economize—energy loss in starvation. Physiol Zool 50:331–362Google Scholar
  49. Wilson EA (1907) Aves. British National Antarctic Expedition 1901–1904, Zoology. Br Mus Nat Hist 2:1–121Google Scholar
  50. Zepelin H, Rechtschaffen A (1974) Mammalian sleep, longevitity, and energy metabolism. Brain Behav Evol 10:425–470PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. D. Stahel
    • 1
  • D. Megirian
    • 1
  • S. C. Nicol
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations