, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 239–244 | Cite as

Simulated distributions of the density of cell adhesion molecules over branching processes with different geometry and intracellular trafficking

  • V. N. Sytnyk


Adhesive cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions mediated by different types of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) are important for growth and migration processes. In simulation study we investigated the impact of geometry of branching cellular processes on the lateral distribution of CAM due to retrograde lateral diffusion from a growing part, where they were delivered by different assumed types of trafficking. The model incorporates trafficking of CAM to and installation in the growing active part of the cell, their lateral diffusive redistribution, formation and dissociation of CAM/ligand complexes, and CAM internalization by endocytosis. Since the rate of growth is two and one order(s) of magnitude slower than the rate of trafficking and lateral diffusion, respectively, steady state distributions of CAM were considered. Three possible types of intracellular CAM partitioning between sister branches were considered: equal, proportional to the branch cross-section area, and proportional to the branch surface area. Asymmetry of branching led to various inhomogeneous distributions of the CAM surface density along the branches, and these distributions depended on the type of intracellular trafficking, which might provide a basis for different modes of growth. One can speculate that, depending on these modes, initially asymmetrical branching can be either reinforced or symmetrized during further development.


Cell Adhesion Molecule Neurite Outgrowth Growth Cone Lateral Diffusion Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. Bras, S. Korogod, Y. Driencourt, et al., “Stochastic geometry and electrotonic architecture of dendritic arborization of brain stem motoneurons,”Eur. J. Neurosci.,5, 1585–1593 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. M. Korogod, H. Bras, V. N. Sarana, et al., “Electrotonic clusters in the dendritic arborization of abducens motoneurons of the rat,”Eur. J. Neurosci.,6, 1517–1527 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. M. Korogod, “Electro-geometrical coupling in non-uniform branching dendrites. Consequences for relative synaptic effectiveness,”Biol. Cybern.,74, 85–93 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. L. Bixby and W. A. Harris, “Molecular mechanisms of axon growth and guidance,”Annu. Rev. Cell Biol.,7, 117–159 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. M. Edelman, “Modulation of cell adhesion during induction, histogenesis and perinatal development of the nervous system,”Annu. Rev. Neurosci.,7, 339–377 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. A. Lauffenburger and A. F. Horwitz, “Cell migration: a physically integrated molecular process,”Cell,84, 359–369 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    U. Rutishauser and T. M. Jessell “Cell adhesion molecules in vertebrate neural development,”Physiol. Rev.,68, 819–857 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. M. Edelman,Topology: an Introduction to Molecular Embryology, Pergamon, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    U. Rutishauser, “Developmental biology of a neural cell adhesion molecule,”Nature,310, 549–554 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    U. Rutishauser, J. P. Thiery, R. Brackenbury, et al., “Mechanisms of adhesion among cells from neural tissues of the chick embryo,”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,73, 577–581 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    U. Rutishauser, W. E. Gall, and G. M. Edelman, “Adhesion among neural cells of the chick embryo. IV. Role of the cell surface molecule CAM in the formation of neurite bundles in cultures of spinal ganglia,”J. Cell Biol.,79, 382–393 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Grumet, U. Rutishauser, and G. M. Edelman, “Neural cell adhesion molecule is on embryonic muscle cells and mediates adhesion to nerve cellsin vitro,”Nature,295, 693–695 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Dimilla, K. Barbee, and D. A. Lauffenburger, “Mathematical model for the effects of adhesion and mechanics on cell migration speed,”Biophys. J.,60, 15–37 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. M. Krivko, D. A. Rusakov, S. V. Savina, et al., “Lateral patterms of the neural cell adhesion molecule on the surface of hippocampal cells developingin vitro,”Neuroscience,55, No. 2, 491–498 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. M. Craig, R. J. Wyborski, and G. Banker, “Preferential addition of newly synthesized membrane protein at axonal growth cones,”Nature,375, 592–594 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. H. Futerman, R. Khanin and L. A. Segel, “Lipid diffusion in neurons,”Nature,362, 119 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Bretscher, “Endocytosis and recycling of the fibronectin receptor in CHO cells,”EMBO J.,8, 1341–1348 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. M. Shepherd,Neurobiology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, Oxford (1988).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. N. Sytnyk, V. A. Berezin, and S. M. Korogod, “Geometry-induced inhomogeneity of distribution of cell-adhesion molecules along branching processes,”Neurophysiology/Neirofiziologiya,30, No. 3, 197–205 (1998).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. W. Gundersen, “Interference reflection microscopic study of dorsal root growth cones on different substrates: assessment of growth cone-substrate contacts,”J. Neurosci. Res.,21, 298–306 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Bray, “Mechanical tension produced by nerve cells in tissue culture,”J. Cell Sci.,37, 391–410 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. A. Tooney, M. V. Agrez, and G. F. Burns, “A re-examination of the molecular basis of cell movement,”Immunol. Cell Biol. 71, 131–139 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. H. Futerman and G. A. Banker, “The economics of neurite outgrowth—the addition of new membrane to growing axons,”Trends Neurosci.,19, No. 4, 144–149 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.-R. Luscher and H. P. Clamann, “Relation between structure and function in information transfer in spinal monosynaptic reflex,”Physiol. Rev.,72, 71–99 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. Zwaagstra and D. Kernell, “Sizes of soma and stem dendrites in intracellularly labelled alpha-motoneurones of the cat,”Brain Res.,204, 295–309 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Nakata, S. Terada, and N. Hirokawa, “Visualization of the dynamics of synaptic vesicle and plasma membrane proteins in living axons,”J. Cell Biol.,140, No. 3, 659–674 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. D. Hazuka, D. L. Foletti, S. C. Hsu, et al., “The sec6/8 complex is located at neurite outgrowth and axonal synapse-assembly domains,”J. Neurosci.,19, No. 4, 1324–1334 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. M. Suter and P. Forscher, “An emerging link between cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion molecules in growth cone guidance,”Current Opin. Neurobiol.,8, No. 1, 106–116 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. J. Goodhill, “Mathematical guidance for axons,”Trends Neurosci.,21, No. 6, 226–231 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Chiba and H. Keshishian, “Neuronal pathfinding and recognition: roles of cell adhesion molecules,”Dev. Biol.,180, No. 2, 424–432 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Sytnyk
    • 1
  1. 1.Dnepropetrovsk State UniversityUkraine

Personalised recommendations