Advertisement

American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 151–179 | Cite as

Occupational conditions and workers' sense of community: Variations by gender and race

  • Susan J. Lambert
  • Karen Hopkins
Article

Abstract

The literature is reviewed to define a sense of community in the workplace and to identify factors that may foster it. A model is developed and estimated with survey data from a culturally diverse sample of men and women performing lower-level jobs at a medium-sized manufacturing firm. Results of regression analyses are reported that correct for sample selection bias resulting from the lower response rates of minority workers. Findings suggest that well-designed jobs and supportive workplace relationships and policies are important in explaining workers' sense of community, defined as workers' perceptions of mutual commitment between employee and employer. Informal sources of support play a larger role in explaining men's sense of community, while formal sources of support are more important in explaining women's sense of community. Findings further suggest that African American workers, especially women, have a difficult time experiencing a sense of community at work.

Key words

sense of community occupational conditions work and family women and work work force diversity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell, E. L. (1990). The bicultural life experience of career-oriented black women.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 459–477.Google Scholar
  2. Berk, R. A. (1983). An introduction to sample selection bias in sociological data.American Sociological Review, 48, 386–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Billings, A., & Moos, R. (1982). Work stress and the stress-buffering roles of work and family resources.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 3, 215–232.Google Scholar
  4. Bohen, H., & Viveros-Long, A. (1981).Balancing jobs and family life. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brooke, P., Russell, D., & Price, J. (1988). Discriminant validation of measures of job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke, R., & Weir, T. (1975). Receiving and giving help with work and non-work related problems.Journal of Business Administration, 6, 59–78.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, R. (1981). Innovations in organizations: Appropriateness of perspectives from small group studies for strategy formulation.Human Relations, 34, 763–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, G. D., Jr., & Klesh, J. (1983). Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In S. Seashore (Ed.),Assessing organizational change: A guide to methods, measures, and practices (pp. 71–119) New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Chavis, D., Hogge, J., McMillan, D., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Sense of community through Brunswik's lens: A first look.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 24–40.Google Scholar
  10. Chavis, D., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development.American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chodorow, N. (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere (Eds.),Women culture and society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983).Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Crouter, A. (1984). Participative work as an influence on human development.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D'Aunno, T., & Price, R. (1984). The context of community research. In K. Heller, R. Price, S. Reinharz, S. Riger, & A. Wandersman (Eds.),Psychology and community change. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  15. Deci, E., Connell, J., & Ryan, R. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization.Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 580–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation.Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenberger, R., & Huntington, R. (1986). Perceived organizational support.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Building theories from case study research.Academy of Management Review, 14, 532–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans, M. (1986). Organizational behavior: The central role of motivation.Journal of Management, 12, 203–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernandez, J. (1986).Child care and corporate productivity, Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, D. (1987).Family supportive policies: The corporate decision-making process (Research Rep. No. 897). New York: The Conference Board.Google Scholar
  22. Galinsky, E. (1989). Labor force participation of dual-earner couples land single parents.Investing in people (Background Papers, Vol. 2, Commission on Workforce Quality and Labor Market Efficiency, pp. 1259–1312). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  23. Galinsky, E., Friedman, D., & Hernandez, C. (1991).The corporate reference guide to work-family programs. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Gant, L., Nagda, B., Brabson, H., Jayartne, S., Chess, W., & Singh, A. (1993). The effects of social support and undermining on African American workers' perceptions of coworker and supervisor relationships and psychological well-being.Social Work, 38, 158–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gladstein, D. (1984). Groups in context: A model of task group effectiveness.Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 499–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glynn, T. (1981). Psychological sense of community: Measurement and application.Human Relations, 34, 789–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldberg, W., Greenberger, E., Koch-Jones, J., O'Neil, R., & Hamill, S. (1989).Child and Youth Care Quarterly, 18, 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greene, W. H. (1988).LIMDEP (Version 5). Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  29. Greenberger, E., Goldberg, W., Hamill, S., O'Neil, R., & Payne, C. (1989). Contributions of a supportive work environment to parents' well-being and orientation to work.American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 755–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error.Econometrica, 47, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heller, K. (1989). The return to community.American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. House, J. (1981).Worker stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  33. House, J. & Wells, J. (1978). Occupational stress, social support, and health. In A. McLean, G. Black, & M. Colligan (Eds.),Reducing occupational stress: Proceedings of a conference (pp. 78–140). Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.Google Scholar
  34. Hughes, D. & Galinsky, E. (1988). Balancing work and family lives: Research and corporate applications. In A. Gottfried & A. Gottfried (Eds.),Maternal employment and children's development: Longitudinal research (pp. 233–268). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  35. Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R., & Wan, C. K. (1990).Interaction effects in multiple regression, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Jeanquart-Barone, S. (1993). Trust differences between supervisors and subordinates: Examining the role of race and gender.Sex Roles, 29, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jick, T., & Mitz, L. (1985). Sex differences in work stress.Academy of Management Review, 10, 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kamerman, S., & Kahn, A. (1987).The responsive workplace: Employers and a changing labor force. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Karasek, R., Triantis, K., & Chaudhry, S. (1982). Co-worker and supervisor support as moderators of associations between task characteristics and mental strain.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 3, 181–200.Google Scholar
  40. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. (1978).The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22, 174–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Klein, K. J., & D'Aunno, T. (1986). The psychological sense of community in the workplace.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 365–377.Google Scholar
  43. Knouse, S., Rosenfeld, P. & Culbertson, A. (Eds.). (1992).Hispanics in the workplace. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Kohn, M. (1977).Class and conformity: A study in values. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lambert, S. (1991). The combined effects of job and family characteristics on the job satisfaction, job involvement, and intrinsic motivation of men and women workers.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 341–363.Google Scholar
  46. Lambert, S., Hopkins, K., Easton, G., Walker, J., McWilliams, H., & Chung, M. S. (1993).Added benefits: The link between family-responsive policies and work performance at Fel-Pro, Inc. Chicago: University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration.Google Scholar
  47. Levering, R., & Moskowitz, M. (1993).The 100 best companies to work for in America. New York: Doubleday/Currency.Google Scholar
  48. Maddala, G. S. (1983).Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. McMillan, D., & Chavis, D. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6–23.Google Scholar
  50. Meyer, J., & Allen, N. (1984). Testing the side-bet theory of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations.Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 372–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller, J., Schooler, C., Kohn, M., & Miller, K. (1979). Women and work: The psychological effects of occupational conditions.American Journal of Sociology, 85, 66–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mowday, R., Porter, L., & Steers, R. (1983).Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism and turnover. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991).Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  54. Pettigrew, T., & Martin, J. (1987). Shaping the organizational context for Black American inclusion.Journal of Social Forces, 43, 41–78.Google Scholar
  55. Price, R. (1985). Work and community.American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Repetti, R. (1987). Individual and common components of the social environment at work and psychological well-being.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 710–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rodgers, F. S., & Rodgers, C., (1989, November–December). The family-friendly corporation.Harvard Business Review, pp. 36–43.Google Scholar
  58. Roman, P. M. (1981, Summer). Job characteristics and the identification of deviant drinking.Journal of Drug Issues, pp. 357–364.Google Scholar
  59. Rothman, J. (1982). Taking account of the workplace in community organization practice. In S. Akabas & P. Kurzman (Eds.),Work, workers and work organizations: A view from social work (pp. 176–196). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  60. Sarason, S. (1974).The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  61. Shinn, M. (1987). Expanding community psychology's domain.American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 555–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shinn, M., & Simpko, P. (1985).Coping, social support, and organizational strategies to aid working parents. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  63. Shinn, M., Wong, N., Simpko, P., & Ortiz-Torres, B. (1989). Promoting the well-being of working parents: Coping, social support, and flexible job schedules.American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith, C., & Brannick, M. (1990). A role and expectancy model of participative decision-making: A replication and theoretical extension.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 91–104.Google Scholar
  65. Sonnenstuhl, W. J. (1990).Help-seeking and helping process within the workplace: Assisting alcoholic and other troubled employees. Paper presented at the conference “Alcohol and the Workplace: Integrating Perspectives on Prevention and Intervention,” Jekyll Island, GA.Google Scholar
  66. Stewart, D. W. (1981). The application and misapplication of factor analysis in marketing research.Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thomas, D. (1990). The impact of race on manager's experiences of developmental relationships (mentoring and sponsorship): An intra-organizational study.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 479–492.Google Scholar
  68. Trice, H. M., & Sonnenstuhl, W. J. (1988). Drinking behavior and risk factors related to the work place: Implications for research and prevention.Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 24, 327–346.Google Scholar
  69. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. (1973).Work in America (Report of Special Task Force to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  70. Wong, N. (1985).Specificity of social support in working parents. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychosocial Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  71. Wyers, N., & Kaulukukui, M. (1984). Social services in the workplace: Rhetoric vs. reality.Social Work, 27, 167–172.Google Scholar
  72. Zimmerman, M., & Rappaport, J. (1988). Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 725–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan J. Lambert
    • 1
  • Karen Hopkins
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Social Service AdministrationUniversity of ChicagoChicago
  2. 2.Syracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations