Skip to main content

Case-based reasoning and instructional design: Using stories to support problem solving

Abstract

With an increased emphasis on problem solving and problem-based learning in the instructional design field, new methods for task analysis and models for designing instruction are needed. An important methodology for both entails the elicitation, analysis, and inclusion of stories as a primary form of instructional support while learning to solve problems. Stories are the most natural and powerful formalism for storing and describing experiential knowledge that is essential to problem solving. The rationale and means for analyzing, organizing, and presenting stories to support problem solving are defined by case-based reasoning. Problems are solved by retrieving similar past experiences in the form of stories and applying the lessons learned from those stories to the new problems. In this paper, after justifying the use of stories as instructional supports, we describe methods for eliciting, indexing, and making stories available as instructional support for learning to solve problems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aamodt, A., & Plaza, E. (1996). Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues methodological variations, and system approaches.Artificial Intelligence Communications,7 (1).

  2. Bell, M. (1996).Nestlé Refrigerated Foods: Contadina Pasta & Pizza (A). Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bruner, J. (1986).Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bruner, J. (1990).Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1994). From visual word problems to learning communities: Changing conceptions of cognitive research. In K. McGilly (Ed.),Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 157–200). Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Coles, R. (1989).The call of stories. Boston: Hoghton Mifflin Company.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Collins, A. (1991).Cognitive apprenticeship and instructional technology. In L. Idol & B.F. Jones (Eds.),Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. 121–138). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Edelson, D.C. (1993).Learning from stories: Indexing and reminding in a Socratic case-based teaching system for elementary school biology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University.

  9. Ferguson, W., Bareiss, R., Birnbaum, L., & Osgood, R. (1991). ASK Systems: An approach to the realization of story-based teachers.The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(1), 95–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gudmundsdottir, S. (1995). The narrative nature of pedagogical content knowledge. In H. McEwan & K. Egan (Eds.),Narrative in teaching, learning, and research. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hall, E.P., Gott, S.P., & Pokorny, R.A. (1995).A procedural guide to cognitive task analysis: The PARI methodology. Tech. Report AL/HR-TR-1995-0108. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: Human Resources Directorate.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Henning, P.H. (1996).A qualitative study of situated learning by refrigeration service technicians working for a supermarket chain in northeastern Pennsylvania. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.

  13. Huberman, M. (1995). Working with life-history narratives. In H. McEwan & K. Egan (Eds.),Narrative in teaching, learning, and research. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Jonassen, D.H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes.Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(1), 656–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Jonassen, D.H. (1998). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: Their current state of the art (2nd Ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jonassen, D.H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving.Educational Technology Research & Development, 48(4), 63–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Jonassen, D.H., Tessmer, M., & Hannum, W.H. (1999).Task analysis methods for instructional design. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Klein, G.A., & Calderwood, R. (1988). How do people use analogs to make decisions? In J. Kolodner (Ed.),Proceedings Workshop on Case-Based Reasoning (DARPA). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kolodner, J. (1992). An introduction to case-based reasoning.Artificial Intelligence Review, 6(1), 3–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kolodner, J. (1993).Case-based reasoning. New York: Morgan Kaufman.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kolodner, J.L. (1997). Educational implications of analogy—A view from case based reasoning.The American Psychologist, 52(1), 57–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kolodner, J.L., & Guzdial, M. (2000). Theory and practice of case-based learning aids. In D.H. Jonassen & S.M. Land (Eds.),Theoretical foundations of learning environments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kolodner, J.L., Hmelo, C.E., & Narayanan, N.H. (1996). Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning. In D.C. Edelson & E.A. Domeshek (Eds.),Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Kopeikina, L., Brandau, R., & Lemmon, A. (1988). Case-based reasoning for continuous control. In J. Kolodner (Ed.),Proceedings: Workshop on case-based reasoning (DARPA). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Lancaster, J.S., & Kolodner, J.L. (1988). Problem solving in a natural task as a function of experience. InProceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

    Google Scholar 

  26. Land, S.M., & Hannafin, M.J. (1996). A conceptual framework for the development of theories-in-action with open-ended learning environments.Educational Technology Research & Development, 44 (3), 37–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Lave, J. (1988).Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991).Situated learning, Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Lodge, D. (1990). Narration with words. In H. Barlow, C. Blakemore & M. Weston-Smith (Eds.),Images and understanding. Cambridge, UL: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. McEwan, H. (1995). Narrative understanding in the study of teaching. In H. McEwan & K. Egan. (Eds.)Narrative in teaching, learning, and research. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. McEwan, H., & Egan, K. (1995).Narrative in teaching, learning, and research. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Merrill, M.D. (2000).First principles of instruction. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Denver, CO. [On-line]. Available: http://id2.usu.edu.

  33. Orr, J.E. (1996).Talking about machines: An ethnography of a modern job. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Polkinghorne, D. (1988).Narrative knowing and the human sciences. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Randall, W.L. (1999). Narrative intelligence and the novelty of our lives.Journal of Aging Studies.13(1), 11–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Read, S., & Cesa, I. (1990). This reminds me of the time when…: Expectation failures in reminding and explanation.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Ross, B.H. (1986). Remindings in learning: Objects and tools. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.),Similarity, analogy, and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Ross, B.H. (1989). Some psychological results on case-based reasoning. In K.J. Hammond. (Ed.),Proceedings: Second Workshop on Case-Based Reasoning (DARPA). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Savery, J., & Duffy, T.M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. In B.G. Wilson (Ed.),Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications

    Google Scholar 

  40. Schafer, R. (1981). Narration in the psychoanalytic dialogue. In W.J.T. Mitchell (Ed.),On narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Schank, R.C. (1990).Tell me a story: Narrative and intelligence. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Schank, R.C. (1999).Dynamic memory revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Schank, R.C., Fano, A., Bell, B., & Jona, M. (1993). The design of goal-based scenarios.The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(4), 305–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Schön, D.A. (1993).The reflective practitioner—How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Sinnott, J.D. (1989). A model for solution of ill-structured problems: Implications for everyday and abstract problem solving. In J.D. Sinnott (Ed.),Everyday problem solving: Theory and applications (pp. 72–79). New York: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  46. White, H. (1981). The value of narrativity in the representation of reality. In W.J.T. Mitchell (Ed.),On narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Witherell, C.S. (1995). Narrative landscapes and the moral imagination. In H. McEwan & K. Egan (Eds.),Narrative in teaching, learning, and research. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jonassen, D.H., Hernandez-Serrano, J. Case-based reasoning and instructional design: Using stories to support problem solving. ETR&D 50, 65–77 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504994

Download citation

Keywords

  • Instructional Design
  • Pedagogical Content Knowledge
  • Instructional Support
  • Educational Technology Research
  • Case Library